Key Information Documents (KID)

Overview: 

IBKR is required to provide EEA and UK retail customers with Key Information Documents (KID) for certain financial instruments, and Key Investor Information Documents (KIID) for funds.

Relevant products include ETFs, Futures, Options, Warrants, Structured Products, CFDs and other OTC products. Funds include both UCITS and non-UCITS funds available to retail investors.

Generally KIDs or KIIDs must be provided in an official language of the country in which a client is resident.

However, clients of IBKR have agreed to receive communications in English, and therefore if a KID or KIID is available in English all EEA and UK clients can trade the product regardless of their country of residence.

In cases where a KID or KIID is not available in English, IBKR additionally supports the German, French and Dutch languages as follows:
German: The product can be traded by residents of Germany, Austria, Belgium, Luxembourg and Liechtenstein.
French: The product can be traded by residents of France, Belgium and Luxembourg.
Dutch: The product can be traded by residents of the Netherlands and Belgium.
 

ESMA差价合约新规推行概述 - 针对IBIE和IBCE的零售客户

Overview: 

差价合约属于复杂金融产品,其交易存在高风险,由于杠杆的作用,可能会出现迅速亏损。

在通过IBKR交易差价合约时,有68.7%的零售投资者账户出现了亏损。

您应考虑自己是否理解差价合约的运作机制以及自己是否能够承受亏损风险。

欧洲证券与市场管理局(ESMA)颁布了适用于交易差价合约(CFD)的零售客户的新法规,自2018年8月1日起生效。专业客户不受影响。

国家监管部门已永久性采纳ESMA法规。

法规包含:1) 杠杆限制;2) 以单个账户为单位的保证金平仓规则;3) 以单个账户为单位的负余额保护规则;4) 对交易差价合约激励措施的限制;以及 5) 标准的风险警告。

大多数客户(受监管的实体除外)一开始都会被分类为零售客户。某些情况下,IBKR可能会同意将零售客户重新分类为专业客户或将专业客户重新分类为零售客户。更多详细信息,请参见MiFID分类

以下板块详细说明了IBKR是如何贯彻ESMA规定的。

1 杠杆限制

 1.1 ESMA保证金
ESMA针对不同的底层证券设置了不同的杠杆限制:

  • 货币对为3.33%;主要货币对为美元、加元、欧元、英镑、瑞郎、日元间的任意组合
  • 非主要货币对及主要指数为5%;
    • 非主要货币对为包括上方未列出的货币的任意组合,如美元/离岸人民币
    • 主要指数为IBUS500、IBUS30、IBUST100、IBGB100、IBDE40、IBEU50、IBFR40、IBJP225、IBAU200
  • 非主要股票指数为10%,包括IBES35、IBCH20、IBNL25、IBHK50
  • 个股为20%

 1.2应用的保证金 - 标准保证金要求

除ESMA的保证金要求外,IBKR还基于底层证券的历史波动率及其它因素实施其自有的保证金要求(IB保证金)。 如果IB的保证金率高于ESMA规定的比例,则应用IB的保证金率。

点此可查看适用的IB和ESMA保证金要求详情。

1.2.1应用的保证金 - 最低集中保证金要求

如果您的投资组合包含少量差价合约和/或股票仓位,或者如果最大的两种持仓占据了绝大多数份额,则您的账户将应用集中保证金。我们会通过对最大的两种持仓假设30%的跌幅、对其余持仓假设5%的跌幅来对您的投资组合进行压力测试。如果总亏损额高于股票和差价合约仓位加在一起的标准保证金要求,则将用总亏损额作为维持保证金要求。注意,差价合约和股票仓位一起计算保证金的情况下,只会应用集中保证金。

1.3初始保证金要求的资金

您只可使用现金作为初始保证金开立差价合约仓位。

最开始,所有用于注资账户的现金都可以用于差价合约交易。随着其它产品产生初始保证金要求以及现金被用于买入股票,可用现金会逐渐减少。如果您用现金买股票产生了保证金贷款,则即使账户有高额资产您也不会有资金进行差价合约交易。根据ESMA法规,我们不能为差价合约保证金增加保证金贷款。

已实现的差价合约盈利将包括在现金中且立即可用;现金无需先结算。然而,未实现的盈利不得用于满足初始保证金要求。

2 保证金平仓规则

2.1维持保证金计算与清算

如果符合条件的资产跌至开仓初始保证金的50%以下,ESMA要求IBKR最后清算差价合约仓位。如果我们的风险观更为保守,IBKR可能会更早平仓仓位。这里的符合条件的资产包括差价合约现金和未实现的差价合约盈亏(正和负)。注意,差价合约现金不包括用于支撑其它产品保证金要求的现金。 

计算的基础为开立差价合约仓位时存入的初始保证金。 换言之,当差价合约持仓的价值发生变动时,初始保证金的金额不会变化,这与非差价合约持仓适用的保证金计算方式不同。

2.1.1举例

您账户中有2000欧元现金且没有未平仓的仓位。您想以100欧元的限价买入100份XYZ的差价合约。首先成交了50份合约,然后再成交其余的50份。随着您的交易成交,您的可用现金减少如下:

 

现金

净资产*

持仓

价格

价值

未实现盈亏

初始保证金

维持保证金

可用现金

维持保证金不足

交易前

2000

2000

 

 

 

 

 

 

2000

 

第一次交易后

2000

2000

50

100

5000

0

1000

500

1000

第二次交易后

2000

2000

100

100

10000

0

2000

1000

0

 *净资产等于现金加未实现盈亏

价格上涨至110。您的净资产现为3000,但由于您的可用现金仍为0,且在ESMA规则下初始保证金和维持保证金不变,您不得开立新的仓位:

 

现金

股票

持仓

价格

价值

未实现盈亏

初始保证金

维持保证金

可用现金

维持保证金不足

变化

2000

3000

100

110

11000

1000

2000

1000

0

 然后价格下跌至95。您的净资产跌至1500,但鉴于净资产仍大于1000,无需追加保证金:

 

现金

股票

持仓

价格

价值

未实现盈亏

初始保证金

维持保证金

可用现金

维持保证金不足

变化

2000

1500

100

95

9500

(500)

2000

1000

0

 价格进一步跌至85,导致保证金不足并触发清算:

 

现金

股票

持仓

价格

价值

未实现盈亏

初始保证金

维持保证金

可用现金

维持保证金不足

变化

2000

500

100

85

8500

(1500)

2000

1000

0

 3 负资产保护

ESMA规则规定,您交易差价合约的损失以划拨的专项资金为上限。不得清算其它金融产品(如股票或期货)来填补差价合约的保证金缺口。*

因此,非差价合约资产不算您的差价合约交易风险资本。 

如果您的损失超过了差价合约交易的专项资金,则IB必须划销损失。 

由于负资产保护对IBKR来说意味着要承担额外风险,对于隔夜持有的差价合约头寸我们会向零售客户额外收取1%的融资息差。您可在此处查看详细的差价合约融资利率。

*我们无法清算非差价合约头寸来弥补差价合约不足,但可以清算差价合约头寸来弥补非差价合约不足。

 

IBKR Metals CFDs – Facts and Q&A

Overview: 

The following article is intended to provide a general introduction to London Gold and Silver Contracts for Differences (CFDs) issued by IBKR.

Please follow these links for information on IBKR Share CFDs, Index CFDs and Forex CFDs.

Risk Warning

CFDs are complex instruments and come with a high risk of losing money rapidly due to leverage.

You should consider whether you understand how CFDs work and whether you can afford to take the high risk of losing your money.

Introduction

A London Gold CFD enables you to have exposure to price movements of physical Gold without actually owning it. A London Gold CFD is an agreement between you and IBKR to exchange the difference in price of the underlying over a period of time. The difference to be exchanged is determined by the change in the reference price of the underlying. Thus, if the price of physical Gold traded on the London bullion market rises and you are long the CFD, you receive cash from IBKR and vice versa. A London Gold CFD can be bought long or sold short to suit your view of market direction in the future.

Contract Specifications

 

Contract IBKR Symbol Per Trade Fee Minimum per Order Multiplier
London Gold XAUUSD 0.015% USD 2.00 1
London Silver XAGUSD 0.03% USD 2.00 1

 

Price Determination

The IBKR London Gold and Silver CFDs reference physical Gold and Silver traded on the London bullion market. The London bullion market is a wholesale over-the-counter market for the trading of precious metals. Trading is conducted among members of the London Bullion Market Association (LBMA). Most of the members are major international banks.

IBKR receives quote streams from approximately 10 such major banks, in much the same way it does for cash forex. IBKR Smart routes between the banks, and the best available price at any given time becomes the reference price for the CFDs. IBKR does not add a spread to the banks’ quotes.

Low Commissions and Financing Rates: Unlike other CFD providers IBKR charges a transparent commission, rather than widening the spread. Commission rates are only 0.015% for London Gold and 0.03% for London Silver. Overnight financing rates are just benchmark +/- 1.5% (an additional 1% surcharge is added for retail accounts).

Transparent Quotes: Because IBKR does not widen the spread, the Metals CFD quotes accurately represent the spreads and price movements of the related cash metal, as described above.

Margin Efficiency: IBKR establishes house-margin requirements based on historic volatility of the underlying and other factors. Retail clients are subject to regulatory minimum initial margins of 5% for London Gold or 10% for London Silver.

Trading Permissions: Same as for Share and Index CFDs.

Market Data Permissions: Metals CFD market data is free, but a permission is required for system reasons.

Worked Trade Example (Professional Clients):

You purchase 100 XAUUSD CFDs at $1,942.5 for USD 194,250 which you then hold for 5 days.

Closing the Position

CFD Resources

Below are some useful links with more detailed information on IB’s CFD offering:

CFD Product Listings

CFD Commissions

CFD Financing Rates

CFD Margin Requirements

CFD Contract Specifications

Frequently asked Questions

Are short Metals CFDs subject to forced buy-in?

No.

Can I take delivery of the underlying metal?

No, IBKR does not support physical delivery for Metals CFDs.

Are there any market data requirements?

The market data for Metal CFDs is free, and is included the market data for Index CFDs. However, you need to subscribe to the permission for system reasons. To do this, log into Account Management, and click through the following tabs: Settings/User Settings/Trading Platform/Market Data Subscriptions. Alternatively you can set up an Index or Metals CFD in your TWS quote monitor and click the “Market Data Subscription Manager” button that appears on the quote line.

How are my CFD trades and positions reflected in my statements?

If you are a client of IBKR Australia, your CFD positions are held in the same account along with your other assets.

In what type of IB accounts can I trade CFDs e.g., Individual, Institutional, etc.?

All margin and cash accounts are eligible for CFD trading.

Can I trade CFDs over the phone?

No. In exceptional cases we may agree to process closing orders over the phone, but never opening orders.

Can anyone trade IB CFDs?

All clients of IBKR Australia can trade IB Australia CFDs.

Related Articles

 

TWS Account Window for Retail Clients of IBKR Ireland and Central Europe

Overview: 

This article describes the information provided in the TWS account window for IBKRs EU based entities.

CFDs are complex instruments and come with a high risk of losing money rapidly due to leverage.

68.7% of retail investor accounts lose money when trading CFDs with IBKR.

You should consider whether you understand how CFDs work and whether you can afford to take the high risk of losing your money.

 

Background: 

Retail clients who are residents of the EEA and therefore maintain an account with one of IBKR’s European brokers, IBIE or IBCE, are subject to EU regulations which introduce leverage and other restrictions applicable to CFD transactions.

Notably the regulations require the use of free cash to satisfy CFD margin requirements and prohibit retail clients from using securities in the account as collateral to borrow funds to initiate or maintain a CFD position. Please see Overview of ESMA CFD Rules Implementation for Retail Clients at IBIE and IBCE for full details.

The accounts of IBKRs EU entities are universal accounts in which clients can trade all asset classes available on IBKRs platform, but unlike IBKRs US and UK entities, there are no separately funded segments.

Working examples of how this restriction is applied, along with details as to how clients can monitor free cash available for CFD transactions, are outlined below.

Account Window

IBKR enforces the restriction relating to free cash by calculating the funds available for CFD trading on a real-time basis, rejecting new orders and liquidating existing positions when the available free cash is insufficient to cover CFD initial and maintenance margin requirements.

IBKR offers clients the ability to monitor free cash available for CFD transactions via an enhancement to the TWS Account Window which displays the level of free cash in the account. Importantly, the funds shown as available for CFD trading do not imply that cash is held in a separate segment. It simply indicates what proportion of total account balances is available for CFD trading.

For example, assume that an account has EUR 9,705 in cash and no positions. All the cash is available to open CFD positions, or positions in any other asset class:

If the account now purchases 10 shares of AAPL stock for an aggregate value of USD 1,383 the cash in the account is reduced by a corresponding amount in EUR, and the funds available for CFD trading are reduced by the
same amount:

 

Note that Total available funds are reduced by a smaller amount, corresponding to the stock margin requirement.

If, instead of buying AAPL stock, the account buys 10 AAPL CFDs the impact will be different. As the transaction involves a derivative contract rather than the purchase of the underlying asset itself, there’s no reduction in cash but the funds available for CFDs are reduced by the CFD margin requirement to secure performance on the contract:

In this case Total available funds and CFD available funds are reduced by an equal amount; the CFD margin requirement.

Funding

As noted above, EU-based accounts do not have segments and therefore there is no need for internal transfers. Funds are available for trades in all asset classes in the amounts indicated in the account window, without the need for sweeps or transfers.

Note also that should an account have a margin loan, i.e. negative cash, it will not be possible to open CFD positions since the CFD margin requirement must be satisfied by free, positive cash. Should you have a margin loan and wish to trade CFDs you must first either close margin positions to eliminate the loan, or add cash to the account in an amount that covers the margin loan and creates a cash buffer sufficient for the necessary CFD margin.

IBKR Metals CFDs – Facts and Q&A

Overview: 

The following article is intended to provide a general introduction to London Gold and Silver Contracts for Differences (CFDs) issued by IBKR.

Please follow these links for information on IBKR Share CFDs, Index CFDs and Forex CFDs.

Risk Warning
CFDs are complex instruments and come with a high risk of losing money rapidly due to leverage.

68.7% of retail investor accounts lose money when trading CFDs with IBKR.

You should consider whether you understand how CFDs work and whether you can afford to take the
high risk of losing your money.

 

ESMA Rules for CFDs (Retail Clients only)
The European Securities and Markets Authority (ESMA) has enacted new CFD rules effective 1st August
2018.

The rules include: 1) leverage limits on the opening of a CFD position; 2) a margin close out rule on a per
account basis; and 3) negative balance protection on a per account basis.

The ESMA Decision is only applicable to retail clients. Professional clients are unaffected.
Please refer to the following articles for more detail:

ESMA CFD Rules Implementation at IBKR (UK) and IBKR LLC

ESMA CFD Rules Implementation at IBIE and IBCE

Introduction
A London Gold CFD enables you to have exposure to price movements of physical Gold without actually owning it. A London Gold CFD is an agreement between you and IBKR to exchange the difference in price of the underlying over a period of time. The difference to be exchanged is determined by the change in the reference price of the underlying. Thus, if the price of physical Gold traded on the London bullion market rises and you are long the CFD, you receive cash from IBKR and vice versa. A London Gold CFD can be bought long or sold short to suit your view of market direction in the future.

Contract Specifications

Contract IBKR Symbol Per Trade Fee Minimum per Order Multiplier
London Gold XAUUSD 0.015% USD 2.00 1
London Silver XAGUSD 0.03% USD 2.00 1

Price Determination
The IBKR London Gold and Silver CFDs reference physical Gold and Silver traded on the London bullion market. The London bullion market is a wholesale over-the-counter market for the trading of precious metals. Trading is conducted among members of the London Bullion Market Association (LBMA). Most of the members are major international banks.

IBKR receives quote streams from approximately 10 such major banks, in much the same way it does for cash forex. IBKR Smart routes between the banks, and the best available price at any given time becomes the reference price for the CFDs. IBKR does not add a spread to the banks’ quotes.

Low Commissions and Financing Rates: Unlike other CFD providers IBKR charges a transparent
commission, rather than widening the spread. Commission rates are only 0.015% for London Gold and 0.03% for London Silver. Overnight financing rates are just benchmark +/- 1.5% (an additional 1% surcharge is added for retail accounts).

Transparent Quotes: Because IBKR does not widen the spread, the Metals CFD quotes accurately
represent the spreads and price movements of the related cash metal, as described above.

Margin Efficiency: IBKR establishes house-margin requirements based on historic volatility of the
underlying and other factors. Retail clients are subject to regulatory minimum initial margins of 5% for
London Gold or 10% for London Silver. 

Trading Permissions: Same as for Share and Index CFDs.

Market Data Permissions: Metals CFD market data is free, but a permission is required for system
reasons.

Worked Trade Example (Professional Clients):

You purchase 100 XAUUSD CFDs at $1,942.5 for USD 194,250 which you then hold for 5 days.

Closing the Position

CFD Resources
Below are some useful links with more detailed information on IB’s CFD offering:

CFD Product Listings

CFD Commissions

CFD Financing Rates

CFD Margin Requirements

CFD Contract Specifications

Frequently asked Questions

Are short Metals CFDs subject to forced buy-in?
No.

Can I take delivery of the underlying metal?

No, IBKR does not support physical delivery for Metals CFDs.

Are there any market data requirements?
The market data for Metal CFDs is free, and is included the market data for Index CFDs. However, you need to subscribe to the permission for system reasons. To do this, log into Account Management, and click through the following tabs: Settings/User Settings/Trading Platform/Market Data Subscriptions. Alternatively you can set up an Index or Metals CFD in your TWS quote monitor and click the “Market Data Subscription Manager” button that appears on the quote line.

How are my CFD trades and positions reflected in my statements?
If you are a client of IBKR (U.K.) or IBKR LLC, your CFD positions are held in a separate account segment identified by your primary account number with the suffix “F”. You can choose to view Activity Statements for the F-segment either separately or consolidated with your main account. You can make the choice in the statement window in Account Management.

If you are a client of other IBKR entities, there is no separate segment. You can view your positions normally alongside your non-CFD positions.

In what type of IB accounts can I trade CFDs e.g., Individual, Friends and Family,
Institutional, etc.?

All margin and cash accounts are eligible for CFD trading. 

Can I trade CFDs over the phone?
No. In exceptional cases we may agree to process closing orders over the phone, but never opening
orders.

Can anyone trade IB CFDs?
All clients can trade IB CFDs, except residents of the USA, Canada, Hong Kong, New Zealand and
Israel. There are no exemptions based on investor type to the residency-based exclusions.

Bonus Certificates Tutorial

Introduction
Bonus certificates are designed to provide a predictable return in sideways markets, and market returns in rising markets.

At the time they’re issued, bonus certificates normally have a term to maturity of two to four years. You will receive a specified cash pay-out (“bonus level” or “Strike”) if at maturity the price of the underlying is below or at the strike, as long as the underlying instrument has not touched or fallen below an established price level (“safety threshold” or “barrier”) during the term of the certificate.

Unless the certificate has a cap, you continue to participate in the price gains if the underlying instrument rises above the bonus level. In this case you either receive the corresponding number of shares or a cash settlement reflecting the value of the underlying instrument on the maturity date.

However, if the barrier is breached, you will no longer be entitled to the bonus payment. The value of the certificate then corresponds to the value of the underlying (times the ratio). In other words, once the barrier has been touched the certificate effectively converts to an index certificate. You will receive either the corresponding number of shares or a cash settlement reflecting the value of the underlying instrument on the maturity date.

Although there is no structured leverage, the presence of the barrier creates effective leverage. When the price of the underlying instrument approaches the barrier the probability of a breach increases, affecting the price of the certificate disproportionately.

Pay-out Profile

Example

Assume a bonus certificate on ABC share. The certificate has a strike of EUR 45.00 and a barrier set at EUR 36.00. The table below shows scenarios depending on the trading range of the underlying, the final price of the underlying and whether the barrier has been touched or not.

Warrant Tutorial

Introduction
A warrant confers the right to buy (call-warrant) or sell (put-warrant) a specific quantity of a specific underlying instrument at a specific price over a specific period of time.

Pay-out Profile

With some warrants, the option right can only be exercised on the expiration date. These are referred to as “European-style” warrants. With “American-style” warrants, the option right can be exercised at any time prior to expiration. The vast majority of listed warrants are cash-exercised, meaning that you cannot exercise the warrant to obtain the underlying physical share. The exception to this rule is Switzerland, where physically settled warrants are widely available.

IBKR does allow for US and Canadian warrant exercise. Customers wishing to do so should submit a Customer Service ticket stating the name/symbol of the warrant, the quantity of shares and the intended action (i.e. exercise). The broker will pass through all associated exercise costs to the customer upon completion of the request. US or Canadian warrants are not eligible for auto-exercise at expiration. Warrants remaining in an account at expiration will be removed as worthless.

Factors that influence pricing
Not only do changes in the price of the underlying instrument influence the value of a warrant, a number of other factors are also involved. Of particular importance to investors in this regard are changes in volatility, i.e. the degree to which the price of the underlying instrument fluctuates. In addition, changes in interest rates and the anticipated dividend payments on the underlying instrument also play a role.

However, changes in implied volatility - as well as interest rates and dividends - only affect the time value of a warrant. The primary driver - intrinsic value - is solely determined by the difference between the price of the underlying instrument and the specified exercise price.

Historical and implied volatility
In addressing this topic, a differentiation has to be made between historical and implied volatility. Implied volatility reflects the volatility market participants expect to see in the financial instrument in the days and months ahead. If implied volatility for the underlying instrument increases, so does the price of the warrant.

This is because the probability of profiting from a warrant during a particular time-frame increases if the price of the underlying instrument is highly volatile. The warrant is therefore more valuable.

Conversely, if implied volatility decreases, that leads to a decline in the value of warrants and hence occasionally to nasty surprises for warrant investors who aren’t familiar with the concept and influence of volatility.

Interest rates and dividends
Issuers hedge themselves against price changes in the warrant through purchases and sales of the underlying instrument. Due to the leverage afforded by warrants, the issuer needs considerably more capital to hedge its exposure than you require to buy the warrants. The issuer’s interest expense associated with that capital is included in the price of the warrant. The amount of embedded interest reduces over time and at expiration is zero.

In the case of puts, the situation is exactly the opposite. Here, the issuer sells the underlying instrument
short to establish the necessary hedge, and in so doing receives capital that can earn interest. Thus interest reduces the price of the warrant by an amount that decreases over time.

As the issuer owns shares as a part of its hedging operations, it is entitled to receive the related dividend
payments. That additional income reduces the price of call warrants and increases the price for puts. But if the dividend expectations change, that will have an influence on the price of the warrants. Unanticipated special dividends on the underlying instrument can lead to a price decline in the related warrants.

Key valuation factors
Let’s assume the following warrant:
Warrant Type: Call
Term to expiration: 2 years
Underlying : ABC Share
Share price: EUR 30.00
Strike: EUR 30.00
Exercise ratio: 0.1
Warrant’s price: EUR 0.30

Intrinsic value
Intrinsic value represents the amount you could receive if you exercised the warrant immediately and then bought (in the case of a call) or sold (put) the underlying instrument in the open market.

It’s very easy to calculate the intrinsic value of a warrant. In our example the intrinsic value is EUR 00.00
and is calculated as follows:

(price of underlying instrument – strike price) x exercise ratio
= (EUR 30.00 – EUR 30.00) x 0.1

= EUR 00.00

If the price of the ABC share increases by EUR 1, the intrinsic value becomes
= (EUR 31.00 – EUR 30.00) x 0.1

= EUR 00.10

The intrinsic value of a put warrant is calculated with this formula:

(strike price – price of underlying instrument) x exercise ratio

It’s important to note that the intrinsic value of a warrant can never be negative. By way of explanation:
if the price of the underlying instrument is at or below the exercise price, the intrinsic value of a call equals zero. In this instance, the price of the warrant consists only of “time value”. On the flipside, the intrinsic value of a put is equal to zero if the price of the underlying instrument is at or above the exercise price.

Time value
Once you’ve calculated the intrinsic value of a warrant, it’s also easy to figure out what the time value of that warrant is. You simply deduct the intrinsic value from the current market price of the warrant. In our example, the time value is equal to EUR 1.30 as you can see from the following calculation:

(warrant price – intrinsic value)
= (EUR 0.30 EUR – EUR 0.00)

= EUR 0.30

Time value gradually erodes during the term of a warrant and ultimately ends up at zero upon expiration. At that point, warrants with no intrinsic value expire worthless. Otherwise you can expect to receive payment of the intrinsic value. Take note, though: a warrant’s loss of time value accelerates during the final months of its term.

Premium
The premium indicates how much more expensive a purchase/sale of the underlying instrument would be via the purchase of a warrant and the immediate exercise of the option right as opposed to simply buying/selling the underlying instrument in the open market.

Hence the premium is a measure of how expensive a warrant actually is. It follows that, when given a choice between warrants with similar features, you should always buy the one with the lowest premium. By calculating the premium as an annualized percentage, warrants with different terms to expiry can be compared with each other.

The percentage premium for the call warrant in our example can be calculated as follows:

(strike price + warrant price / exercise ratio – share price) / share price * 100

= (EUR 30.00 + EUR 0.30 / 0.1 – EUR 30.00) / EUR 30.00 x 100

= 10 percent

Leverage
The amount of leverage is the price of the share * ratio divided by the price of the warrant. In our example 30.00*0.1/0.3 = 10. So when the price of ABC increases by 1% the value of the warrant increases by 10%.

The amount of leverage is not constant however; it varies as intrinsic and time value changes, and is particularly sensitive to changes in intrinsic value. As a rule of thumb, the higher the intrinsic value of the warrant, the lower the leverage. For example (assuming constant time value):

 

 

Knock-out (Turbo) Tutorial

Introduction
Knock-out warrants (turbos), like vanilla warrants, derive their value from the difference between the price of the underlying and the strike. They differ significantly however from vanilla warrants in many important respects:

  • They can expire (knock-out) prematurely if the price of the underlying instrument touches or falls below (in the case of knock-out calls) or exceeds (in the case of knockout puts) a predetermined barrier-level. It expires worthless if the barrier equals the strike, or it may have a residual stop-loss value if the barrier is set higher than the strike (in the case of a call).
  • Changes in implied volatility have little or no impact on knock-out products, therefore their pricing is easier for investors to comprehend than that of warrants.
  • They have little or no time value (because of the presence of the knock-out barrier), and therefore have a higher degree of leverage than a warrant with the same strike. This is because the absence of time value makes the instrument “cheaper”.

Pay-out Profile

Leverage
As discussed above, knock-out warrants exhibit high degrees of leverage, particularly as the price of the underlying nears the strike/barrier. Consider the following example of a long turbo on the Dow Jones Index, compared to a vanilla warrant:

Intrinsic value = (index value – strike) x ratio
Leverage = Index Value x Ratio / Instrument Price

A vanilla warrant retains significant time value even as the underlying price approaches the strike, sharply reducing its leverage compared to a knock-out warrant.

Product types
As discussed above, the barrier may either equal the strike, or be set above (calls) or below (puts). In the latter cases a small residual value remains after knock-out, corresponding to the difference between the barrier (the stop-loss level) and the strike.

Moreover, knock-out products may either have an expiration date or may be open-ended. This makes a difference in the way interest is accounted for. If the contract has an expiration date interest is included in the premium, the amount of which reduces over time and is zero on expiration. This is analogous to a standard vanilla warrant.

in relation to an expiration date. The price of the contract therefore corresponds exactly to its intrinsic value. Interest however must be accounted for. This is done by a daily adjustment of the barrier and strike. The following example shows the daily adjustment for a long open-end turbo on the Dow Jones Index:

The adjustment = Strike T x (1+ FedFunds/360 + Issuer Spread/360).

The intrinsic value of the instrument is correspondingly reduced as follows, assuming no change in the value of the DJ Index):

Intrinsic value = (index value – strike) x ratio

 

Discount Certificates Tutorial

Introduction
Discount certificates are designed to provide an enhanced return in sideways markets, compared to a direct investment in the underlying.

Discount certificates make it possible for you to buy an underlying instrument for less than its current market price. However, the maximum payback on a discount certificate is limited to a predetermined amount (cap).

Discount certificates normally have a term to maturity of one to three years. At maturity, a determination is made of where the price of the underlying instrument stands.

If it is at or above the cap, you’ll earn the maximum return and receive payment of the amount reflected by the cap.

If the price of the underlying instrument is below the cap on the maturity date, you’ll receive either the corresponding number of shares or a cash settlement reflecting the value of the underlying instrument on the maturity date.

Pay-out Profile

Example
Assume a discount certificate on ABC share. The certificate has a cap of EUR 40.00, and a purchase price of EUR 36.00. The table below shows scenarios depending on the final price of the underlying.

Factor Certificates Tutorial

Introduction
Factor certificates employ a daily leverage factor that multiplies the daily performance of the underlying instrument. Unlike knock-out warrants and mini-futures, factor certificates do not have a knock-out barrier. To avoid a loss greater than the investment, the calculation resets intraday if the performance of the underlying threatens to render the certificate worthless.

Daily Leverage
The performance of the certificate is calculated daily, without reference to previous days’ values. If the underlying returns 1% on the day, the value of 3x certificate increases by 3%, a 5x by 5%. The next day the process is repeated, referencing the prior day’s underlying close.

As such, factor certificates are particularly suitable for day-traders.

However, for a period of more than one day, the cumulative performance of the underlying cannot be simply multiplied by a factor of 3 as the previous day’s price always forms the new basis of calculating each day’s performance for the certificate. To illustrate with an example:

Cumulatively, the factor certificate has returned less than 3x the performance of the underlying.

Intraday Reset
If an underlying for a factor certificate loses more than a certain percentage of its value intraday, the calculation is reset by simulating a new day. The reset threshold varies depending on the leverage factor.

Let’s assume a long factor certificate with a 10x leverage factor. According to the terms of the certificate, a reset will be triggered if the underlying loses more than 9.5% during the calculation day.

Let’s now assume that the underlying loses 12% of its value during a particular day. The reset
and final performance will be as follows:

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