IBKR Metals CFDs – Facts and Q&A

Overview: 

The following article is intended to provide a general introduction to London Gold and Silver Contracts for Differences (CFDs) issued by IBKR.

Please follow these links for information on IBKR Share CFDs, Index CFDs and Forex CFDs.

Risk Warning
CFDs are complex instruments and come with a high risk of losing money rapidly due to leverage.

59.5% of retail investor accounts lose money when trading CFDs with IBKR.

You should consider whether you understand how CFDs work and whether you can afford to take the
high risk of losing your money.

 

ESMA Rules for CFDs (Retail Clients only)
The European Securities and Markets Authority (ESMA) has enacted new CFD rules effective 1st August
2018.

The rules include: 1) leverage limits on the opening of a CFD position; 2) a margin close out rule on a per
account basis; and 3) negative balance protection on a per account basis.

The ESMA Decision is only applicable to retail clients. Professional clients are unaffected.
Please refer to the following articles for more detail:

ESMA CFD Rules Implementation at IBKR (UK) and IBKR LLC

ESMA CFD Rules Implementation at IBIE, IBCE and IBLUX

Introduction
A London Gold CFD enables you to have exposure to price movements of physical Gold without actually owning it. A London Gold CFD is an agreement between you and IBKR to exchange the difference in price of the underlying over a period of time. The difference to be exchanged is determined by the change in the reference price of the underlying. Thus, if the price of physical Gold traded on the London bullion market rises and you are long the CFD, you receive cash from IBKR and vice versa. A London Gold CFD can be bought long or sold short to suit your view of market direction in the future.

Contract Specifications

Contract IBKR Symbol Per Trade Fee Minimum per Order Multiplier
London Gold XAUUSD 0.0015% USD 2.00 1
London Silver XAGUSD 0.0015% USD 2.00 1

Price Determination
The IBKR London Gold and Silver CFDs reference physical Gold and Silver traded on the London bullion market. The London bullion market is a wholesale over-the-counter market for the trading of precious metals. Trading is conducted among members of the London Bullion Market Association (LBMA). Most of the members are major international banks.

IBKR receives quote streams from approximately 10 such major banks, in much the same way it does for cash forex. IBKR Smart routes between the banks, and the best available price at any given time becomes the reference price for the CFDs. IBKR does not add a spread to the banks’ quotes.

Low Commissions and Financing Rates: Unlike other CFD providers IBKR charges a transparent
commission, rather than widening the spread. Commission rates are only 0.0015%. Overnight financing rates are just benchmark +/- 1.5% (an additional 1% surcharge is added for retail accounts).

Transparent Quotes: Because IBKR does not widen the spread, the Metals CFD quotes accurately
represent the spreads and price movements of the related cash metal, as described above.

Margin Efficiency: IBKR establishes house-margin requirements based on historic volatility of the
underlying and other factors. Retail clients are subject to regulatory minimum initial margins of 5% for
London Gold or 10% for London Silver. 

Trading Permissions: Same as for Share and Index CFDs.

Market Data Permissions: Metals CFD market data is free, but a permission is required for system
reasons.

Worked Trade Example (Professional Clients):

You purchase 100 XAUUSD CFDs at $1,942.5 for USD 194,250 which you then hold for 5 days.

Closing the Position

CFD Resources
Below are some useful links with more detailed information on IB’s CFD offering:

CFD Product Listings

CFD Commissions

CFD Financing Rates

CFD Margin Requirements

CFD Contract Specifications

Frequently asked Questions

Are short Metals CFDs subject to forced buy-in?
No.

Can I take delivery of the underlying metal?

No, IBKR does not support physical delivery for Metals CFDs.

Are there any market data requirements?
The market data for Metal CFDs is free, and is included the market data for Index CFDs. However, you need to subscribe to the permission for system reasons. To do this, log into Account Management, and click through the following tabs: Settings/User Settings/Trading Platform/Market Data Subscriptions. Alternatively you can set up an Index or Metals CFD in your TWS quote monitor and click the “Market Data Subscription Manager” button that appears on the quote line.

How are my CFD trades and positions reflected in my statements?
If you are a client of IBKR (U.K.) or IBKR LLC, your CFD positions are held in a separate account segment identified by your primary account number with the suffix “F”. You can choose to view Activity Statements for the F-segment either separately or consolidated with your main account. You can make the choice in the statement window in Account Management.

If you are a client of other IBKR entities, there is no separate segment. You can view your positions normally alongside your non-CFD positions.

In what type of IB accounts can I trade CFDs e.g., Individual, Friends and Family,
Institutional, etc.?

All margin and cash accounts are eligible for CFD trading. 

Can I trade CFDs over the phone?
No. In exceptional cases we may agree to process closing orders over the phone, but never opening
orders.

Can anyone trade IB CFDs?
All clients can trade IB CFDs, except residents of the USA, Canada, Hong Kong, New Zealand and
Israel. There are no exemptions based on investor type to the residency-based exclusions.

外匯(FX)入門

Overview: 

IB提供的交易場所和交易平臺既適用於專注外匯交易的交易者也適用於因多幣種股票和/或衍生品交易需要偶爾進行外匯交易的交易者。下方文章概述了在TWS平臺上下達外匯定單的基本要點以及報價管理和頭寸報告相關信息。

Background: 

外匯(FX)交易涉及同時買入一種貨幣並賣出另一種貨幣,兩種貨幣組合在一起通常被稱為交叉貨幣對。在下方例子中,EUR.USD交叉貨幣對中的前一種貨幣(EUR)為交易者想買入或賣出的交易貨幣,後一種貨幣(USD)則為結算貨幣

 

跳轉至指定主題;

 

外匯報價

貨幣對即外匯市場上一種貨幣單位相對於另一種貨幣單位的相對價值的報價。用以作為參考的貨幣被稱為報價貨幣,而參考該貨幣給出報價的貨幣則被稱為基礎貨幣。在TWS中,每個貨幣對有一個交易代碼。您可以使用外匯交易者(FXTrader)調換報價方向。交易者買入或賣出基礎貨幣的同時在賣出或買入報價貨幣。例如,EUR/USD貨幣對的代碼為:

EUR.USD

其中:

  • EUR為基礎貨幣
  • USD為報價貨幣

上方貨幣對的價格表示需要多少單位的USD(報價貨幣)能交易一個單位的EUR(基礎貨幣)。也就是說,1 EUR是在按USD報價。

EUR.USD的單表示買入EUR並賣出同等金額的USD,具體取決於交易價格。

 

創建報價行

 
在TWS添加外匯報價行具體步驟如下:
1.  輸入交易貨幣(如EUR),然後按回車鍵(enter)。
2.  選擇產品類型——外匯   

3.  選擇結算貨幣(如USD),然後選擇外匯交易場所。

 

 

注:

IDEALFX對於超過其最低數量要求(通常為25,000美元)的定單可直接接入銀行間外匯報價。傳遞到IDEALFX但未達到其最低數量要求的定單基本會被自動傳遞到小額定單交易場所進行外匯轉換。點擊此處瞭解IDEALFX的最低數量要求和最高數量限制相關信息。 

外匯交易商會按特定方向對外匯貨幣對進行報價。因此,交易者需通過調整輸入的貨幣代碼來查找想要的貨幣對。例如,如果輸入貨幣代碼CAD,交易者會發現合約選擇窗口中沒有結算貨幣USD。這是因為,該貨幣對是按USD.CAD報價的,只能先輸入底層代碼USD,然後再選擇貨幣對。


 返回頂部

 

下單

 

具體取決於顯示的欄標頭,貨幣對將顯示如下:
合約(Contract)描述(Description)欄將按交易貨幣.結算貨幣的形式顯示貨幣對(如EUR.USD)。底層代碼(Underlying)欄則只顯示交易貨幣。

點擊此處瞭解如何更改更改顯示的數據欄標頭。


 

1.  要輸入定單,左鍵點擊買價(下賣單)或賣價(下買單).

2.  指定想要買入或賣出的交易貨幣的數量。定單的數量基礎貨幣(即貨幣對中的前一種貨幣)顯示。

盈透證券在外匯交易上沒有代表固定金額基礎貨幣的合約的概念,您的交易尺寸便是所需交易的基礎貨幣金額。

例如,100,000單位EUR.USD的買單會買入100,000單位EUR,並根據顯示的匯率賣出等值USD。

3.  指定想使用的定單類型、匯率(價格),然後傳遞定單。

注:下達的定單必須是完整的貨幣單位,除上述交易場所最低數量要求外,沒有最低合約或手數要求。

常見問題:如何使用外匯交易者(FX Trader)下單?

返回頂部 

 

點值

點(pip)是貨幣對變化的衡量單位,對於大多數貨幣對來說其代表最小變化,但有時也允許存在非整點的變化。

例如,在EUR.USD中,1個點是0.0001,而在USD.JPY中,1個點事0.01。

要計算報價貨幣1個點的點值,可採用以下公式:

(名義金額) x (1個點)

例如:

  • 代碼 = EUR.USD
  • 金額 = 100,000 EUR
  • 1個點 = 0.0001

1個點點值 = 100’000 x 0.0001= 10 USD

  • 代碼 = USD.JPY
  • 金額 = 100’000 USD
  • 1個點 = 0.01

1個點點值 = 100’000 x (0.01)= JPY 1000

要計算基礎貨幣1個點的點值,可採用以下公式:

(名義金額) x (1個點/匯率)

例如:

  • 代碼 = EUR.USD
  • 金額 = 100’000 EUR
  • 1個點 = 0.0001
  • 匯率 = 1.3884

1個點點值 = 100’000 x (0.0001/1.3884)= 7.20 EUR

  • 代碼 = USD.JPY
  • 金額 = 100’000 USD
  • 1個點 = 0.01
  • 匯率 = 101.63

1個點點值 = 100’000 x (0.01/101.63)= 9.84 USD

 

頭寸(交易後)報告

 

外匯頭寸信息是在IB進行交易的一個重要方面,在真實賬戶中開始交易之前需對其進行充分瞭解。IB的交易軟件在兩個不同的地方反映了外匯頭寸,二者均可在賬戶窗口查看。

 

1. 市場價值

賬戶窗口的市場價值部分反映的是實時貨幣頭寸,按貨幣(而非貨幣對)顯示。 

賬戶窗口的市場價值部分是唯一一個可供交易者查看實時外匯頭寸信息的地方。持有多種貨幣頭寸的交易者不一定要使用開倉時用的貨幣對來平倉。例如,買了EUR.USD(買EUR賣USD)還買了USD.JPY(買USD賣JPY)的交易者也可以通過交易EUR.JPY(賣EUR買JPY)來平倉頭寸。

注:

市場價值部分可展開/收起。交易者應點擊淨清算價值欄上方的符號確保顯示出綠色“減號”。如果是綠色“加號“,某些頭寸可能被隱藏。

 

交易者可以從市場價值部分發起平倉交易:右鍵點擊想要平倉的貨幣,選擇”平倉貨幣餘額“或”平倉所有非基礎貨幣餘額“。

 

 2. 外匯投資組合

賬戶窗口的外匯投資組合部分展示的是虛擬頭寸,以貨幣對的形式顯示頭寸信息,這與市場價值部分按貨幣顯示不同。這種特定的顯示形式是為了考慮機構外匯交易者的常用慣例,零售或非頻繁外匯交易者基本上可以無視該部分信息。外匯投資組合的頭寸數量並不反映所有外匯活動,但是,交易者可以對此部分顯示的頭寸數量和平均成本進行修改。這一無需執行交易便可隨意調整頭寸和平均成本信息的功能對於除交易非基礎貨幣產品外還參與其它貨幣交易的交易者可能會有幫助。其可讓交易者手動將自動貨幣轉換(交易非基礎貨幣產品時會自動發生)與單純的外匯交易活動分隔開來。 

外匯投資組合部分的外匯頭寸和盈虧信息均來自所有其它交易窗口顯示的信息。這在確定真實的實時頭寸信息時可能會造成一定困惑。為減少或消除此類困惑,交易者可以選擇以下操作:

 

a. 收起外匯投資組合部分

點擊外匯投資組合(FX Portfolio)文字左邊的箭頭可收起外匯投資組合部分。收起該部分後,虛擬頭寸信息便不再在各交易頁面顯示。(注:這並不會讓市場價值信息顯示出來,其只會阻止外匯投資組合信息顯示。)

 

 

b. 調整頭寸或平均價格

右鍵點擊賬戶窗口的外匯投資組合部分,交易者可以選擇調整頭寸或平均價格。交易者平倉掉所有非基礎貨幣頭寸並確定市場價值部分反映了被平倉的所有非基礎貨幣頭寸後,便可將頭寸和平均價格區域重置為0。此操作會重置外匯投資組合部分的頭寸數量,可讓交易者在交易界面看到更加準確的頭寸和盈虧信息。(注:這是手動操作,每次貨幣頭寸平倉後都需進行一次)。交易者應隨時對市場價值部分的頭寸信息進行確認,確保傳遞的定單達到開倉或平倉頭寸想要的結果)

 

我們鼓勵交易者在真實賬戶中開始交易前,先在模擬交易或演示賬戶中熟悉一下外匯交易。如關於以上信息仍有任何疑問,請聯繫IB。

返回頂部

 

 

 

其它常見問題:

 

 

 

 

如何使用外匯交易者(FX Trader)下單?

Overview: 

TWS可供客戶從外匯交易者(FX Trader)界面創建外匯定單。  

Background: 

儘管外匯交易者界面與定單管理界面有所不同,但交易功能是相同的。

點擊TWS主界面頂部的外匯交易者圖標即可打開外匯交易者,外匯交易者界面以類似“單元格”的形式顯示貨幣對。 

與定單管理界面的市場數據行類似,買價位於左側,賣價位於右側。點擊賣價下買單,點擊買價下賣單。

工作中的定單和交易會顯示在外匯交易者窗口第二部分的相應標簽頁中。

注:外匯交易者中創建的定單會顯示在TWS的定單管理界面,但定單管理界面創建的定單無法在外匯交易者窗口查看。

點擊此處觀看有關外匯交易者使用的錄製網研會。

 

Leveraged FX Currency Restrictions for Israeli Retail Clients

Due to a June 2018 ruling by the Israeli financial court, Interactive Brokers is no longer permitted to offer spot forex trading to Israeli retail clients. While IBKR's forex offering is a deliverable "spot" transaction, the ruling interpreted a 2014 amendment to Israeli Securities Law 5728-1968 to cover spot/cash transactions in addition to derivative/contract style transactions.

The restriction applies only to clients deemed to be "retail" investors.  Non-retail investors (i.e. Qualified Investors and clients who are included in the First Schedule of the Israeli Securities Law 1968) are exempt from this restriction.
The new forex restriction goes into effect on 1 August 2018:
  • Forex transactions that would create a negative balance or would increase a pre-existing negative balance in either component currency will not be allowed to Israeli retail clients.
  • The negative cash balance test applies only to the component currencies and for the cash movements created directly by the forex trade. There is no restriction regarding the creation of negative balances by other means such as cashiering activity or trading activities in securities (stocks, bonds, options, etc).
The relevant ISA regulation can be found here (ISA_6025) with sections 44L-M defining the relevant issues.
 
Example: Prohibited Transaction
 
An account is not allowed to go negative cash upon execution of a cash conversion or FX trade. 
Have USD 1,000 and try to buy EUR 3,000 @ 1.17 USD-EUR (USD Value of 3,510) would create a negative balance of USD -4,510.
Currency Cash Cash
ILS 10,000 10,000
USD 1,000 -2,510
EUR 0 3,000
Example: Permitted Transaction
 
The rule will not prevent you from trading on margin or engaging in any other investment transaction on the IBKR Platform.
 
Example: Having USD 1,000 and buying stocks worth USD 3,000 USD would create a balance of
USD -2,000.
Currency Cash Stock Cash Stock
USD 1,000 0 -2,000 3,000

Example: Having USD 1,000 and converting to ILD, value of ILS 3,600 (1 USD = 3.6 ILS) 

Currency
Cash
Cash
ILS
0
3,600
USD
1,000
0

Example: Have USD 1,000 USD and withdraw EUR 600

Currency
Cash
Cash
EUR
0
-600
USD
1,000
1,000

 

Procedure

In order to be consider a "Qualified Investor" IB requires client to meet the following criteria and procedural requirements.

Qualified Investor qualification need to be recertified every 3 years.

For Individuals

Individuals, which comply with at least one of the following alternatives:

  1. Total value of Liquid Assets greater than NIS 8 million; or
  2. Annual income in each preceding two years is greater than NIS 1.2 million or the income of the Household to which he belongs is greater than NIS 1.8 million.; or
  3. Total value of Liquid Assets greater than NIS 5 million and the annual income in each proceeding two years is greater than NIS 600,000 or such annual income of the Household to which he belongs is greater than NIS 900,000.

"Liquid Assets" means cash, deposits, securities, equities and funds.

"Household" means an individual and the persons living with him or who are dependent on him for their living.

The client must:

  • compete the Qualified Investor Representation form and
  • provide a written signed confirmation from a registered attorney or accountant certifying their qualification. This certification should be no older than 3 months.

For Corporates

The following entities can be exempted:

  1. Authorized mutual funds or fund managers
  2. Provident funds or fund managers
  3. Insurers
  4. Banking corporations
  5. Portfolio managers
  6. Investment advisors, who acquire for themselves
  7. Stock Exchange members
  8. Underwrites, who buy for themselves
  9. Venture capital funds
  10. Corporations (including funds, partnerships) other than corporations which were incorporated for the purpose of purchasing securities in a specific offer, with equity exceeding 50 million NIS
  11. Corporations, wholly owned by one of the aforementioned investors

Entities qualifying under exemptions 1-9 must provide confirmation of their status from a governmental register.
Entities that wish to be considered under exemptions 10 and 11 must:

  • complete the Qualified Investor Representation form and
  • provide a written signed confirmation from a registered attorney or accountant certifying their qualification. This certification should be no older than 3 months.
     

Forex Execution Statistics

Overview: 

IB clients can now analyze the quality of their forex executions in comparison to forex trades by other IB customers through the FX Browser tool in Account Management. The tool provides transaction data for the 15 forex transactions that occur immediately before and after in the same currency pair of the client's transaction.

Note:

The number of transactions may be limited to fewer than the stated 15 as the NFA also has placed a 15 minute window on the query. Meaning, if within a 15 minute window before and after the customer's execution there are fewer than 15 executions the customer's query will return only those executions which occurred within the time window.
 

Accessing the FX Browser Tool
To Access the FX Browser tool, login to Account Management using the Login button on our website. Click the Support tab followed by Tools. Please note, at this time only data for the live account will be provided.

 

From there, select FX Browser from the list of tools:

 

Submitting a Query

When the FX Browser is launched, you will be presented with the following screen:

 

Please note that only Trade Date is a mandatory field in the query. When clicking on the Trade Date field, a calendar widget will populate and allow you to select your trade date. Only transactions from the last 6 months will be available to search.

 

Active customers may wish to limit the results by further selecting the currency pair, side or time of the execution.

Once the desired query has been entered, click on the Submit button.

The next screen will display the list of executions for the given account on the specified day. From there, you may select the execution you wish to receive the execution statistics on.

 

Once the execution you wish to view has been selected, click the "Download NFA Report" button.


 

Reading the Report
The results will be returned in a new tab and will contain the 15 executions before and 15 executions after the trade you selected on the previous screen. Per the note above, if fewer than 15 executions occurred in the 15 minute time frame only those executions will be displayed.

The query results will include the following information:

  • Execution date and time, as expressed in Eastern time
  • Side (buy or sell)
  • Quantity (of Transaction Currency)
  • Currency pair
  • Execution price
  • Commissions and other charges assessed by the FDM
  • Currency denomination of commissions

Your trade will be marked as Trade Number "0" and the trades before and after your trade will be numbered from 1 to 15.

 

Error Messages

If the search criteria you enter does not bring up any trade information, you will be presented with the following error message:

 

Automatic Forex Swap

OVERVIEW 

In general, interest on account balances are credited/debited at benchmark rates plus/minus a spread as shown on our web pages. For qualified clients with substantial forex positions, however, IB has created a mechanism to carry large gross FX positions with higher efficiency with respect to carrying costs. We refer to it as the “auto swap program”. The design allows clients to benefit from IB’s participation in the interbank forex swaps market where implied interest rate spreads are usually much narrower than the spreads available in the retail deposit market. 

a. Concept 

Interest is charged on settled balances, so the intent of a Forex swap as used here is to defer the settlement of a currency position from one day to the next business day. This is done by a simultaneous sell and buy of the same amount of base (first) currency but for two different value dates e.g. on T you go long 10 mio. EUR.USD for value date T+2. By example, on T+1 the position is swapped T+2 to T+3, here a sell of 10 mio EUR.USD for T+2 and a purchase of 10 mio. EUR.USD for T+3. As a result you have deferred settlement from T+2 to T+3, with the difference in prices of the two trades representing the financing cost from T+2 to T+3.

b. Cost

This service is provided as a free service and no commission or markup is charged by Interactive Brokers. The interbank market bid/ask spread inherent in the swap prices may be regarded as a cost but is not determined by Interactive Brokers. Interactive Brokers provides the service on a best efforts basis to our large Forex clients.

c. Position Criteria

Swap activity is only applied to accounts with gross FX positions larger than 10 mio. USD or approximate equivalent of other currencies. Positions are swapped (rolled) in increments or multiples of USD 1 mio. (or equivalent). The residual settled balances are traded under IB‘s standard interest model1. Positions that are swapped (rolled) are real positions, i.e. the projected T+1 settled cash balances.

The so-called “Virtual Positions” are not considered; the virtual position is only a representation of the original trades expressed as currency pairs, for example EUR.CHF.

Settled cash balances are a single currency concept, e.g. EUR or CNH. IB executes all swaps against USD as it is the most efficient funding currency. Should you have a position in a cross, e.g. EUR against CHF, two swaps, one in EUR.USD and one in USD.CHF will be done. The threshold(s) and increment(s) may change at any time without notice.

d. Client Eligibility

As we offer this service for free, only clients with substantial currency positions are eligible for inclusion in the service. US legal residents need to be an Eligible Contract Participant (ECP) and be in the possession of an LEI number (legal entity identifier). Interactive Brokers cannot guarantee a client’s inclusion in the program and all inquiries require compliance approval prior to become active.2

e. Swap Price Recognition 

Interactive Brokers may conduct a series of swaps in a currency during a day. Interactive Brokers will use average bid and ask prices at which it executed, respectively average bid and asks as quoted in the interbank market. Swap prices are not published but can be seen (or calculated) in the statement after execution. The swaps are applied in the account at the end of the day.

f. Recognition in the Statement 

You will find the swap transaction(s) in the Trades section of the statement. The swap are represented as simultaneous purchase/sale or vice versa, do not have a time stamp and shows an M (manual entry) in the code column. The actual swap prices are the difference in between the two prices.

Here an example for cob 20150203 that shows a swap from 20150203 to 20150204.

 

g. Examples of Swap Prices 

Here a couple of examples that use swap prices from a major interbank provider. Often bid/ask spreads are even tighter. 

Currency Pair

Spot Bid

Spot Ask

Tenor

Days in Period (TN)

Swap Points Bid

Swap Points Ask

Implied Currency

Implied Rate Bid

Implied Rate Ask

EUR.USD

1.04481

1.04483

TomNext(TN)

1

0.00004220

0.00004280

EUR

-0.77%

-0.75%

USD.HKD

7.76810

7.76810

TomNext(TN)

1

-0.00011500

-0.00011000

HKD

0.17%

0.19%

USD.JPY

117.050

117.052

TomNext(TN)

1

-0.0038

-0.0032

JPY

-0.47%

-0.47%

USD.CNH

6.93101

6.93105

TomNext(TN)

1

0.0021

0.0028

CNH

11.77%

15.46%

In more detail, let’s assume you want to calculate the implied CNH rate resulting from a USD.CNH swap. We are looking for the implied rate of the quote currency CNH (Currency 2). Therefore the following formula is used:

 

 

Description Variable Value
Currency Pair (Currency1.Currency2) USD.CNH  
day count convention Currency 1 (base Currency), i.e. USD dayCountCurr1 360
day count convention Currency 2 (quote Currency), i.e. CNH dayCountCurr2 365
Tenor TomNext  
number of days in the Tenor noDays 1
interest rate of Currency 1 (in decimals, i.e. 1% = 0.01) inRateCurr1 0.0070
Currency rate (Spot) currencyRate 6.939500
swap Points expressed in decimals swapPoints 0.0012
near Currency Rate (Spot - swap points) nearCurrencyRate 6.938300
far Currency Rate (in a Tomnext swap this is the spot rate) farCurrencyRate 6.939500
     
implied interes rate of Currency2, i.e. CNH impliedRateCurrncy2(quoteCurrency) 0.0702

 So using above figures, this results in a 7.02% implied interest rate for CNH.

 

Now if you wanted to calculate the implied rate for the base currency (Currency 1) the formula would change slightly. Here an example using EUR.USD:

 

Description Variable Value
Currency Pair (Currency1.Currency2) EUR.USD  
day count convention Currency 1 (base Currency), i.e. EUR dayCountCurr1 360
day count convention Currency 2 (quote Currency), i.e. USD dayCountCurr2 360
Tenor TomNext  
number of days in the Tenor noDays 1
interest rate of Currency 2 (in decimals, i.e. 1% = 0.01) inRateCurr2 0.0070
Currency rate (Spot) currencyRate 1.039900
swap Points expressed in decimals swapPoints 0.000042
near Currency Rate (Spot - swap points) nearCurrencyRate 1.039858
far Currency Rate (in a Tomnext swap this is the spot rate) farCurrencyRate 1.039900
     
implied interes rate of Currency1, i.e. EUR impliedRateCurrncy1(baseCurrency) -0.0075

 Using above example, this results in a -0.75 % implied interest rate for EUR. 

  

1. For example, in the case of a USD 20.3 mio. position only 20 mio. will be swapped. USD 0.3 remains in the account and interest using benchmark and spreads will be applied. A USD 300k position will not be considered for swapping at all. The position by currency is taken as the reference, regardless of the overall position. 

 2 US, Australian and Israeli domiciled residents are currently not eligible for inclusion in the Automated Forex Swap Program.

Summary of Risks relating to Forex CFDs issued by Interactive Brokers Securities Japan, Inc.

Overview: 

This summary highlights the principal risks associated with trading Forex CFDs issued by IBSJ (“IB FXCFDs"). It is not a risk disclosure for regulatory purposes.

  • Trading of IB FXCFDs is not suitable for all investors, and you should not trade them unless you are an experienced investor with a high risk tolerance and the capability to sustain losses if they occur
  • The volatility of foreign exchange rates and interest rates may quickly cause significant losses. Forex CFDs employ leverage that further amplifies the volatility relative to your investment and you may lose more than you have invested. In addition, IB FXCFD roll over interest may turn from a credit to a debit due to changes in interest rates
  • You are required to maintain sufficient equity in your account at all times to cover IBSJs maintenance margin requirement. There are no grace-periods and IBSJ does not issue margin calls. Your equity is calculated in real time and should it become insufficient, IBSJ will immediately and automatically liquidate positions to bring your account into margin compliance. Real time liquidations aim to minimize the risk that your account equity becomes negative, but they cannot eliminate that risk. Should your equity become negative you are required to deposit additional funds to cover the deficit
  • The price IBSJ displays to you for IB FXCFDs is based on the prevailing foreign exchange market. However there is no guarantee for executions at that price. Slippage may occur for large trades or in fast moving markets and during heavily traded hours
  • Moreover, your ability to establish or close positions on a timely basis is not guaranteed. It may become difficult to display quotes during major holidays or during hours when foreign exchange trading is not active. IBSJ may display prices that deviate from a fair market due to system-malfunctions or failures, or erroneous quotes that IBSJ may receive from market participants or for other reasons (off-market prices). IBSJ will adjust or cancel trades executed with off-market prices
  • IB FXCFDs are over-the-counter trades between you and IBSJ. They are not traded on any exchange or cleared by any central counterparty. You are therefore exposed to counterparty risk and should IBSJ become insolvent you may not be able to fully recoup your investment, or at all

Please contact IBSJs Client Service Department should you have questions about the content of this summary and read the full risk disclosure carefully before commencing trading. The risk disclosure is available in Account Management when you request IB FXCFD trading permissions, and on IBSJs web site.

IB外匯差價合約 - 事實與常見問題

Overview: 
下方文章對IB英國發行的外匯差價合約(CFD)進行了總體介紹。
IB外匯差價合約覆蓋了可做即期外匯交易的全部85個貨幣對,佣金和保證金率均與即期外匯相衕。與即期外匯相比,外匯差價合約有著極具競爭力的融資模式,詳細信息請見下文。
 
有關IB股票差價合約的信息,請點擊 此處。有關指數差價合約的信息,請點擊此處

風險警告
差價合約屬於復雜金融產品,其交易存在高風險,由於杠杆的作用,可能會出現迅速虧損。

在通過IBKR(UK)交易差價合約時,有67%的零售投資者賬戶出現了虧損。

您應考慮自己是否理解差價合約的運作機制以及自己是否能夠承受虧損風險。

ESMA差價合約規定(僅限零售客戶)

歐洲證券與市場管理局(ESMA)頒布了新的差價合約規定,自2018年8月1日起生效。

新規包括:1) 開倉差價合約頭寸的杠杆限制;2) 以單個賬戶為單位的保證金平倉規則;以及3) 以單個賬戶為單位的負余額保護規則;ESMA規定僅適用於零售客戶。

專業客戶不受影響。

請參見ESMA差價合約新規推行了解更多詳細信息。

 

IBKR外匯差價合約特點

透明的直接市場接入(DMA)報價:IB收緊的點差與丰富的流動性源於14家全球最大外匯交易商的聯合報價,這些交易商占有全球銀行衕業拆借市場的份額超過70%*。因此顯示的報價低至0.1個點差(PIP)。IB不會標高報價,而是會將其接收到的價格直接傳遞給客戶并單獨收取低廉的佣金。

*來源:歐洲貨幣雜志外匯調查(Euromoney FX survey)外匯投票2016。

息差:外匯差價合約在展期時會反映相關貨幣對的基准利率差。這基本上與其他經紀商使用的隔夜利息(TOM Next)展期相似,但由於基准利率的波動性通常小於互換利率,該息差的穩定性更高。此外,IB還提供很低的融資點差,對主要貨幣對低至1.0%;對較大余額低至0.5%。波動較大的貨幣對融資點差也會更高。
 
IB外匯差價合約的息差是根據貨幣對特定基准和點差而確定的。基准為兩種貨幣的IB基准利率之差。計算方法為 + 基礎貨幣基准利率 – 報價貨幣基准利率。

例如,2016年4月21日,英鎊基准利率為0.483%,美元基准利率為0.37%。則適用的基准利率為:

GBP.USD基准 +0.483% - 0.37% = +0.113%

適用的客戶利率為貨幣對基准 – IB多頭頭寸點差,基准 + 空頭頭寸點差:

GBP.USD多頭利率 +0.113% - 1.00% = -0.887%

GBP.USD空頭利率 +0.113% + 1.00% = +1.113%

請注意,多頭利率為貸項,空頭利率為借項。因此,對於多頭頭寸,正利率意味著您會收到利息,負利率意味著您會被收取利息。而對於空頭頭寸,正利率意味著您會被收取利息,負利率意味著您會收到利息。

利率根據以報價貨幣表示的合約價值進行計算,并以該貨幣收取或支付利息。舉例:

舉例:

每日利息
  頭寸 GBP.USD收槃價 USD價值 利率 USD
GBP.USD -20,000 1.43232 -28,646.40 1.113% -0.89

外匯差價合約余額利息基於合約單獨計算,而不是與其他貨幣頭寸(包括即期外匯)合并或總括計算。盡管IB不會直接引用互換利率,但IB保留在特殊市場條件下(如財年結束前后的互換利率迅速上升)應用較高點差的權利。

點擊此處可查看詳細的利率信息。
 
交易:IB外匯差價合約的交易與即期外匯完全一樣,也支持衕樣的20多種定單類型和算法。IB外匯差價合約交易可在標准模式TWS或IB外匯交易者中進行。要在標准模式TWS或外匯交易者中找到想要交易的合約,請輸入貨幣對(如EUR.USD)并在合約選擇彈框中選擇差價合約。
 
保證金:IB外匯差價合約保證金按合約針對每個貨幣對計算,
而不考慮賬戶中持有的其他外匯余額,包括即期外匯。主要貨幣對的保證金低至合約價值的2.5%。點擊此處可查看所有貨幣對的詳細信息。取決於具體貨幣對,零售客戶須滿足3.33%或5%的最低初始保證金。請參見ESMA差價合約新規推行了解詳細信息。
 
佣金:IB會將其接收到的價格直接傳遞給客戶并單獨收取低廉的佣金。
我們之所以這樣做是為了向客戶提供透明的定價結搆,而不是像許多外匯經紀商那樣不收取佣金但標高報價。佣金階梯根據月交易量來確定,從0.20到0.08個基點不等。外匯差價合約和即期外匯交易量都計入階梯。
點擊此處可查看詳細信息。
 
交易許可:要交易外匯差價合約,您必須在賬戶管理中為外匯差價合約設置交易許可。適用條件與杠杆外匯相衕。  請注意,外匯差價合約與其它差價合約一樣均由IB英國承轉,因此,如果您持有IB LLC賬戶,我們會提示您開立一個IB英國賬戶段。IB英國賬戶段會在您的當前賬戶號碼后加上后綴“F”。 
 

交易舉例(專業客戶)

開倉

您以$1.16195的價格買入10手(200000)EUR.CHF差價合約,總計CHF 232,390,持有5天。

EUR.CHF外匯差價合約 – 新頭寸
參考底層證券價格 1.16188 - 1.16195
差價合約參考價格 1.16188 - 1.16195
行動 買入
數量 200,000
交易價值 CHF 232,390.00
保證金(3% x 232,390) AUD 9,100

 

收取的利息(232,390瑞郎5天的利息)
第一階梯(貨幣對BM 0.42% - IB點差1%) CHF 232,390.00 -0.58% (CHF 18.72)

平倉

平倉差價合約頭寸
  盈利情境 虧損情境
參考底層證券價格 1.16840 - 1.16848 1.15539 - 1.15546
差價合約參考價格 1.16840 - 1.16848 1.15539 - 1.15546
行動 賣出 賣出
數量 200,000 200,000
交易價值 CHF 233,680.00 CHF 231,078.00
交易盈虧 CHF 1,290.00 (CHF 1,312.00)
融資 (CHF 18.72) (CHF 18.72)
開倉佣金0.002% (CHF 4.65) (CHF 4.65)
開倉佣金0.002% (CHF 4.67) (CHF 4.62)
總盈虧 CHF 1,261.96 (CHF 1,339.99)

差價合約的相關資源

下方鏈接可幫助您了解更多有關IB差價合約產品的詳細信息:

 

常見問題

任何人都能交易IB外匯差價合約嗎?

除美國、加拿大和香港的居民,其他所有客戶都能交易IB差價合約。任何投資者類型都不能免於這一基於居住地的限制。

 

IB外匯差價合約和IB現金外匯之間的區別是什么?

IB現金外匯是一種帶杠杆的現金交易,可實物交割貨幣對的兩種貨幣。您的外匯交易相關余額會與您其他交易活動產生的其他余額合并,且您需根據每種貨幣的基准利率為這些合并余額支付利息或收取相關利息。

相比之下,IB外匯差價合約是一種提供倉位但不支持實物交割底層貨幣的合約,且您是根據合約的名義價值支付或收取利息的。合約的基准利率是兩種底層貨幣的基准利率差額。這基本上與其他經紀商使用的隔夜利息(TOM Next)展期相似,但由於基准利率的波動性通常小於互換利率,該息差的穩定性更高。

請參見上方的息差部分查看詳細舉例。

 

有什么市場數據要求嗎?

IB外匯差價合約的市場數據與杠杆外匯相衕。其為全局許可且免費。

 

差價合約交易與頭寸在報表中如何反映?

如果您在IB LLC持有賬戶,且您的差價合約頭寸持有在單獨的賬戶段(主賬戶號碼加后綴“F”)中。您可選擇單獨查看F賬戶段的活動報表,也可以選擇與主賬戶合并查看。您可在賬戶管理的報表窗口進行選擇。

 

我可以釆用與即期外匯一樣的定單類型和算法交易外匯差價合約嗎?我可以在外匯交易者中進行這種交易嗎?

可以,交易是一樣的。

 

Allocation of Partial Fills

Title:

How are executions allocated when an order receives a partial fill because an insufficient quantity is available to complete the allocation of shares/contracts to sub-accounts?

 

Overview:

From time-to-time, one may experience an allocation order which is partially executed and is canceled prior to being completed (i.e. market closes, contract expires, halts due to news, prices move in an unfavorable direction, etc.). In such cases, IB determines which customers (who were originally included in the order group and/or profile) will receive the executed shares/contracts. The methodology used by IB to impartially determine who receives the shares/contacts in the event of a partial fill is described in this article.

 

Background:

Before placing an order CTAs and FAs are given the ability to predetermine the method by which an execution is to be allocated amongst client accounts. They can do so by first creating a group (i.e. ratio/percentage) or profile (i.e. specific amount) wherein a distinct number of shares/contracts are specified per client account (i.e. pre-trade allocation). These amounts can be prearranged based on certain account values including the clients’ Net Liquidation Total, Available Equity, etc., or indicated prior to the order execution using Ratios, Percentages, etc. Each group and/or profile is generally created with the assumption that the order will be executed in full. However, as we will see, this is not always the case. Therefore, we are providing examples that describe and demonstrate the process used to allocate partial executions with pre-defined groups and/or profiles and how the allocations are determined.

Here is the list of allocation methods with brief descriptions about how they work.

·         AvailableEquity
Use sub account’ available equality value as ratio. 

·         NetLiq
Use subaccount’ net liquidation value as ratio

·         EqualQuantity
Same ratio for each account

·         PctChange1:Portion of the allocation logic is in Trader Workstation (the initial calculation of the desired quantities per account).

·         Profile

The ratio is prescribed by the user

·         Inline Profile

The ratio is prescribed by the user.

·         Model1:
Roughly speaking, we use each account NLV in the model as the desired ratio. It is possible to dynamically add (invest) or remove (divest) accounts to/from a model, which can change allocation of the existing orders.

 

 

 

Basic Examples:

Details:

CTA/FA has 3-clients with a predefined profile titled “XYZ commodities” for orders of 50 contracts which (upon execution) are allocated as follows:

Account (A) = 25 contracts

Account (B) = 15 contracts

Account (C) = 10 contracts

 

Example #1:

CTA/FA creates a DAY order to buy 50 Sept 2016 XYZ future contracts and specifies “XYZ commodities” as the predefined allocation profile. Upon transmission at 10 am (ET) the order begins to execute2but in very small portions and over a very long period of time. At 2 pm (ET) the order is canceled prior to being executed in full. As a result, only a portion of the order is filled (i.e., 7 of the 50 contracts are filled or 14%). For each account the system initially allocates by rounding fractional amounts down to whole numbers:

 

Account (A) = 14% of 25 = 3.5 rounded down to 3

Account (B) = 14% of 15 = 2.1 rounded down to 2

Account (C) = 14% of 10 = 1.4 rounded down to 1

 

To Summarize:

A: initially receives 3 contracts, which is 3/25 of desired (fill ratio = 0.12)

B: initially receives 2 contracts, which is 2/15 of desired (fill ratio = 0.134)

C: initially receives 1 contract, which is 1/10 of desired (fill ratio = 0.10)

 

The system then allocates the next (and final) contract to an account with the smallest ratio (i.e. Account C which currently has a ratio of 0.10).

A: final allocation of 3 contracts, which is 3/25 of desired (fill ratio = 0.12)

B: final allocation of 2 contracts, which is 2/15 of desired (fill ratio = 0.134)

C: final allocation of 2 contract, which is 2/10 of desired (fill ratio = 0.20)

The execution(s) received have now been allocated in full.

 

Example #2:

CTA/FA creates a DAY order to buy 50 Sept 2016 XYZ future contracts and specifies “XYZ commodities” as the predefined allocation profile. Upon transmission at 11 am (ET) the order begins to be filled3 but in very small portions and over a very long period of time. At 1 pm (ET) the order is canceled prior being executed in full. As a result, only a portion of the order is executed (i.e., 5 of the 50 contracts are filled or 10%).For each account, the system initially allocates by rounding fractional amounts down to whole numbers:

 

Account (A) = 10% of 25 = 2.5 rounded down to 2

Account (B) = 10% of 15 = 1.5 rounded down to 1

Account (C) = 10% of 10 = 1 (no rounding necessary)

 

To Summarize:

A: initially receives 2 contracts, which is 2/25 of desired (fill ratio = 0.08)

B: initially receives 1 contract, which is 1/15 of desired (fill ratio = 0.067)

C: initially receives 1 contract, which is 1/10 of desired (fill ratio = 0.10)

The system then allocates the next (and final) contract to an account with the smallest ratio (i.e. to Account B which currently has a ratio of 0.067).

A: final allocation of 2 contracts, which is 2/25 of desired (fill ratio = 0.08)

B: final allocation of 2 contracts, which is 2/15 of desired (fill ratio = 0.134)

C: final allocation of 1 contract, which is 1/10 of desired (fill ratio = 0.10)

 

The execution(s) received have now been allocated in full.

Example #3:

CTA/FA creates a DAY order to buy 50 Sept 2016 XYZ future contracts and specifies “XYZ commodities” as the predefined allocation profile. Upon transmission at 11 am (ET) the order begins to be executed2  but in very small portions and over a very long period of time. At 12 pm (ET) the order is canceled prior to being executed in full. As a result, only a portion of the order is filled (i.e., 3 of the 50 contracts are filled or 6%). Normally the system initially allocates by rounding fractional amounts down to whole numbers, however for a fill size of less than 4 shares/contracts, IB first allocates based on the following random allocation methodology.

 

In this case, since the fill size is 3, we skip the rounding fractional amounts down.

 

For the first share/contract, all A, B and C have the same initial fill ratio and fill quantity, so we randomly pick an account and allocate this share/contract. The system randomly chose account A for allocation of the first share/contract.

 

To Summarize3:

A: initially receives 1 contract, which is 1/25 of desired (fill ratio = 0.04)

B: initially receives 0 contracts, which is 0/15 of desired (fill ratio = 0.00)

C: initially receives 0 contracts, which is 0/10 of desired (fill ratio = 0.00)

 

Next, the system will perform a random allocation amongst the remaining accounts (in this case accounts B & C, each with an equal probability) to determine who will receive the next share/contract.

 

The system randomly chose account B for allocation of the second share/contract.

A: 1 contract, which is 1/25 of desired (fill ratio = 0.04)

B: 1 contract, which is 1/15 of desired (fill ratio = 0.067)

C: 0 contracts, which is 0/10 of desired (fill ratio = 0.00)

 

The system then allocates the final [3] share/contract to an account(s) with the smallest ratio (i.e. Account C which currently has a ratio of 0.00).

A: final allocation of 1 contract, which is 1/25 of desired (fill ratio = 0.04)

B: final allocation of 1 contract, which is 1/15 of desired (fill ratio = 0.067)

C: final allocation of 1 contract, which is 1/10 of desired (fill ratio = 0.10)

 

The execution(s) received have now been allocated in full.

 

Available allocation Flags

Besides the allocation methods above, user can choose the following flags, which also influence the allocation:

·         Strict per-account allocation.
For the initially submitted order if one or more subaccounts are rejected by the credit checking, we reject the whole order.

·         “Close positions first”1.This is the default handling mode for all orders which close a position (whether or not they are also opening position on the other side or not). The calculation are slightly different and ensure that we do not start opening position for one account if another account still has a position to close, except in few more complex cases.


Other factor affects allocations:

1)      Mutual Fund: the allocation has two steps. The first execution report is received before market open. We allocate based onMonetaryValue for buy order and MonetaryValueShares for sell order. Later, when second execution report which has the NetAssetValue comes, we do the final allocation based on first allocation report.

2)      Allocate in Lot Size: if a user chooses (thru account config) to prefer whole-lot allocations for stocks, the calculations are more complex and will be described in the next version of this document.

3)      Combo allocation1: we allocate combo trades as a unit, resulting in slightly different calculations.

4)      Long/short split1: applied to orders for stocks, warrants or structured products. When allocating long sell orders, we only allocate to accounts which have long position: resulting in calculations being more complex.

5)      For non-guaranteed smart combo: we do allocation by each leg instead of combo.

6)      In case of trade bust or correction1: the allocations are adjusted using more complex logic.

7)      Account exclusion1: Some subaccounts could be excluded from allocation for the following reasons, no trading permission, employee restriction, broker restriction, RejectIfOpening, prop account restrictions, dynamic size violation, MoneyMarketRules restriction for mutual fund. We do not allocate to excluded accountsand we cancel the order after other accounts are filled. In case of partial restriction (e.g. account is permitted to close but not to open, or account has enough excess liquidity only for a portion of the desired position).

 

 

Footnotes:

1.        Details of these calculations will be included in the next revision of this document.

2.        To continue observing margin in each account on a real-time basis, IB allocates each trade immediately (behind the scenes) however from the CTA and/or FA (or client’s) point of view, the final distribution of the execution at an average price typically occurs when the trade is executed in full, is canceled or at the end of day (whichever happens first).

3.       If no account has a ratio greater than 1.0 or multiple accounts are tied in the final step (i.e. ratio = 0.00), the first step is skipped and allocation of the first share/contract is decided via step two (i.e. random allocation).

 

Additional Information Regarding the Use of Stop Orders

U.S. equity markets occasionally experience periods of extraordinary volatility and price dislocation. Sometimes these occurrences are prolonged and at other times they are of very short duration. Stop orders may play a role in contributing to downward price pressure and market volatility and may result in executions at prices very far from the trigger price. 

Investors may use stop sell orders to help protect a profit position in the event the price of a stock declines or to limit a loss. In addition, investors with a short position may use stop buy orders to help limit losses in the event of price increases. However, because stop orders, once triggered, become market orders, investors immediately face the same risks inherent with market orders – particularly during volatile market conditions when orders may be executed at prices materially above or below expected prices.
 
While stop orders may be a useful tool for investors to help monitor the price of their positions, stop orders are not without potential risks.  If you choose to trade using stop orders, please keep the following information in mind:
 
·         Stop prices are not guaranteed execution prices. A “stop order” becomes a “market order” when the “stop price” is reached and the resulting order is required to be executed fully and promptly at the current market price. Therefore, the price at which a stop order ultimately is executed may be very different from the investor’s “stop price.” Accordingly, while a customer may receive a prompt execution of a stop order that becomes a market order, during volatile market conditions, the execution price may be significantly different from the stop price, if the market is moving rapidly.
 
·         Stop orders may be triggered by a short-lived, dramatic price change. During periods of volatile market conditions, the price of a stock can move significantly in a short period of time and trigger an execution of a stop order (and the stock may later resume trading at its prior price level). Investors should understand that if their stop order is triggered under these circumstances, their order may be filled at an undesirable price, and the price may subsequently stabilize during the same trading day.
 
·         Sell stop orders may exacerbate price declines during times of extreme volatility. The activation of sell stop orders may add downward price pressure on a security. If triggered during a precipitous price decline, a sell stop order also is more likely to result in an execution well below the stop price.
 
·         Placing a “limit price” on a stop order may help manage some of these risks. A stop order with a “limit price” (a “stop limit” order) becomes a “limit order” when the stock reaches or exceeds the “stop price.” A “limit order” is an order to buy or sell a security for an amount no worse than a specific price (i.e., the “limit price”). By using a stop limit order instead of a regular stop order, a customer will receive additional certainty with respect to the price the customer receives for the stock. However, investors also should be aware that, because a sell order cannot be filled at a price that is lower (or a buy order for a price that is higher) than the limit price selected, there is the possibility that the order will not be filled at all. Customers should consider using limit orders in cases where they prioritize achieving a desired target price more than receiving an immediate execution irrespective of price.
 
·         The risks inherent in stop orders may be higher during illiquid market hours or around the open and close when markets may be more volatile. This may be of heightened importance for illiquid stocks, which may become even harder to sell at the then current price level and may experience added price dislocation during times of extraordinary market volatility. Customers should consider restricting the time of day during which a stop order may be triggered to prevent stop orders from activating during illiquid market hours or around the open and close when markets may be more volatile, and consider using other order types during these periods.
 
·         In light of the risks inherent in using stop orders, customers should carefully consider using other order types that may also be consistent with their trading needs.
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