Steuern: Nicht US-amerikanische Personen und Unternehmen: Formular 1042-S

Formular 1042-S erfasst Einkünfte aus US-amerikanischen Quellen, die von nicht US-amerikanischen Personen erwirtschaftet werden, die die US-Quellensteuer entrichten müssen. Einkünfte dieser Art umfassen Zinserträge, Dividenden, Ersatzzahlungen anstelle von Dividenden und eingenommene (an und für Kontoverwalter gezahlte) Gebühren in Ihrem Konto für das Steuerjahr.  Unter Umständen erhalten Sie mehrere 1042-S-Formulare zur Meldung verschiedener Arten von Einkommen. 

Diese Informationen werden ebenfalls an den IRS gemeldet. Jeder Einkommenstyp wird unter Verwendung eines Codes in Feld 1 in einem getrennten Formular ausgewiesen. Gängige Codes:

 

Circular 230 Hinweis: Diese Angaben werden ausschließlich zu Informationszwecken bereitgestellt. Sie stellen keine Steuerberatung dar, die verlässlich zur Vermeidung von Strafen/Bußen gemäß nationalen, bundesstaatlichen, örtlichen oder anderen Steuergesetzen oder Vorschriften verwendet werden kann, und dienen nicht zur Lösung von Steuerproblemen zu Ihren Gunsten.

Connecticut Sales and Use Tax

The state of Connecticut imposes a sales and use tax which is applicable to online access to information including all data and access fees.

The tax rate as of 2017 is 1% and is applicable to clients with the state of legal residency of Connecticut or a Connecticut permanent/resident address.

The sales and use tax will be applied to all research and market data subscriptions as well as special connections such as VPN, IB Gateway, Extranet and Dedicated Leased Lines.

The sales and use tax will be passed through to client accounts at the time of the subscription billing. The tax is only applicable if a monthly fee is charged, therefore should an account receive a waiver the sales and use tax will similarly be waived.

 

 

Chicago Personal Property Tax

Chicago has a personal property tax which applies to a non-possessory computer lease by a Chicago resident. The Chicago tax authorities have ruled that tax is to be applied in cases where a customer pays for electronic research/use of an interactive site. The passive receipt or streaming of information is not subject to the tax.

Clients whose permanent residential address or principal business address is Chicago will have this tax passed through to their accounts.

The tax rate, as of October 2017, is 9%. The tax will be charged on the research and news feeds a client is subscribed to. Should a research and news feed be eligible to a waiver based upon commissions generated, the tax will not be applied.

As of October 2017, research and news subscriptions which would be subject to the tax would include

Base IBIS Research Platform and the IBIS Research Essentials Subscription Bundle
Cusip
Dow Jones News Service
Dow Jones Real Time News
US Press Release Feed
Reuters Global Newswire
Reuters StreetEvents Calendars
Reuters Fundamentals
Reuters Basic Newfeed
Morningstar Equity, ETF and Credit Reports
Wall Street Horizons
Zacks Equity Research Reports

The above list is provided on a best efforts basis and is subject to change. Clients will be responsible for any pass through tax regardless of any discrepancy from the list provided above.

 

Quellensteuer auf dividendengleiche Zahlungen - FAQ

Hintergrund

Zum 1. Jänner 2017 tritt eine neue IRS-Regelung in Kraft, laut der Nicht-US-Personen, die Derivate-Positionen auf US-Aktien halten, US-Quellensteuern auf US-amerikanische dividendengleiche Zahlungen abführen müssen. Zuvor wurde die US-amerikanische Quellensteuer auf diese Zahlungen nicht verhängt. Diese Richtlinien besagen, dass Intermediäre, wie z. B. Interactive Brokers, als Quellensteuervermittler agieren und US-Steuern im Auftrag der IRS einfordern. Im Folgenden erhalten Sie einen Überblick zu der Steuer, ihrer Bestimmung sowie welche Finanzprodukte von ihr betroffen sind.
 
Übersicht
Welchen Zweck hat diese Richtlinie?
Diese Verordnung hat ihren Ursprung in Section 871(m) des Internal Revenue Code und beabsichtigt eine Vereinheitlichung der US-Steuerbehandlung von Nicht-US-Personen hinsichtlich Dividenden auf US-amerikanische Aktien und dividendengleiche Zahlungen bei Derivate-Kontrakten, die (zu einem hohen Grad) die Inhaberschaft solcher Aktien replizieren.
 
Ein Beispiel hierzu wäre ein Gesamtrendite-Swap mit IBM als zugrunde liegende Aktie.  Eine Nicht-US-Person, die eine IBM-Aktienposition hält, unterläge bei Dividendenausschüttungen einer 30%igen US-Quellensteuer (vertraglich reduziert). Jedoch vor der Implementierung der Section 871(m) konnte eine Nicht-US-Person, die Long-Exposure zu IBM auf den Swap hält, dividendengleiche Zahlungen ohne US-Quellensteuerabzüge erhalten. Dies war gang und gäbe, obwohl die Zahlungen eine ähnliche wirtschaftliche Beteiligung replizierten. Section 871(m) erachtet nun diese "dividendengleichen Zahlungen" im Rahmen der US-amerikanischen Quellensteuer als steuerpflichtig.
 
Was ist eine dividendengleiche Zahlung?
Eine dividendengleiche Zahlung wird als jeglicher Bruttobetrag definiert, der als Auszahlung einer Dividende im Rahmen einer US-Aktie erfolgt und der zur Berechnung eines Nettobetrages genutzt wird, der entweder an die bzw. von der Long-Partei überwiesen wurde, selbst wenn die Long-Partei eine Nettozahlung an die Short-Partei überweist oder die Nettozahlung null beträgt. Demnach würden solche Zahlungen nicht die eigentliche Zahlung anstelle der Dividende enthalten, jedoch eine geschätzte Dividendenausschüttung, die bei der Berechnung einer oder mehrerer Transaktionsbedingungen, einschließlich des Zinssatzes, des Nominalbetrags oder des Kaufpreises indirekt berücksichtigt werden.
 
Im Falle einer börsennotierten Call-Option auf eine US-Aktie hat der Inhaber des Calls keine Berechtigung zum Erhalt der Dividende, mit Ausnahme, dass die Option vor dem Ex-Tag der Dividende ausgeführt wird. Nichtsdestotrotz berücksichtigt der Aufschlag, der vom Inhaber zum Erwerb der Option gezahlt wird, indirekt den gegenwärtigen Wert der voraussichtlichen Dividenden binnen der Optionslaufzeit.[1] Da dieser Faktor dazu dient die Zahlung vom Optionskäufer zum Verkäufer zu senken, wird dies als dividendengleiche Zahlung, die dieser Verordnung unterliegen könnte, angesehen.
 
Wer unterliegt der Quellensteuer auf dividendengleiche Zahlungen?
Die Steuer gilt für geltende Positionen, die im Konto eines nicht US-amerikanischen Steuerzahlers gehalten werden. Die Regelung betrifft keine US-amerikanischen Steuerzahler. Konten von Nicht-US-Steuerzahlern werden üblicherweise durch die Übermittlung des IRS-W-8-Formulars bescheinigt und können sich auf die folgenden Kontotypen beziehen: Einzelkonto, Gemeinschaftskonto, Unternehmenskonten sowie Trust-Konten.
 
Welche derivativen Finanzinstrumente fallen potenziell unter die Quellensteuer für dividendengleiche Zahlungen?
Die Vorschrift stellt mittels eines zweiteiligen Tests fest, ob ein derivatives Finanzinstrument den Richtlinien unterliegt. Zuerst müssen die derivativen Instrumente die Dividende einer US-amerikanischen Aktie referenzieren. Zum Beispiel:
-          Aktienoptionen
-          Regulierte Single-Stock-Futures
-          Regulierte Index-Futures und Optionen auf Index-Futures
-          Strukturierte und börsengehandelte Notes
-          CFD-Kontrakte
-          Wandelanleihen
-          Wertpapierleihgeschäfte
-          Derivate auf benutzerdefinierte Körbe ("Baskets") und
-          Optionsscheine
 
Voraussetzung ist, dass es sich bei der zugrunde liegenden Position um eine US-Aktie handelt. Die Börse, mittels der das Finanzinstrument gehandelt wird, sowie die Identität der Gegenpartei haben keinen Einfluss auf die Anwendung der Richtlinien. Somit kann ein Derivat den Vorschriften unterliegen, ungeachtet dessen, ob es börsennotiert, over-the-counter, in den USA oder im Ausland gehandelt wird.
 
Zweitens muss das derivative Instrument explizit auf die wirtschaftlichen Aspekte der zugrunde liegenden US-Aktie zum Zeitpunkt der Emission hinweisen. Laut den Vorschriften wird Delta (für einfache Kontrakte) und ein sogenannter 'Äquivalenztest' (bei komplexeren Kontrakten) zum Zweck der Feststellung angewendet.
 
Delta ist das Maß, das zur Berechnung des Verhältnisses zwischen fairen Marktwertveränderungen des derivativen Finanzinstruments und fairen Marktwertveränderungen der von dem Derivat ausgewiesenen US-Aktie verwendet wird.  Zum Zweck dieser Richtlinie wird Delta generell nur ein einziges Mal für ein derivatives Finanzinstrument berechnet - zum Zeitpunkt seiner "Emission". Delta wird nicht erneut berechnet, wenn sich der faire Marktwert des zugrunde liegenden Wertpapiers ändert oder wenn das derivative Instrument am Sekundärmarkt wiederverkauft wird.
 
Für die meisten Kontrakte gelten die folgenden Regeln:
·         Vor 2017 – ein derivatives Finanzinstrument, das vor dem 1. Januar 2017 emittiert wird (d. h. jedes Instrument, das von einem Kunden am 31. Dezember 2016 bei uns gehalten wird), unterliegt nicht den neuen Regelungen zur Quellensteuer.
·         2017 - ein derivatives Finanzinstrument, das 2017 emittiert wird, unterliegt möglicherweise dem neuen Quellensteuerprogramm, vorausgesetzt, dass das Delta zum Emissionszeitpunkt 1.0 beträgt.
·         Nach 2017 – für derivative Finanzinstrumente, die nach dem 31. Dezember 2017 emittiert werden, gelten die neuen Quellensteuer-Vorschriften, falls das Delta zum Emissionszeitpunkt 0.8 oder mehr beträgt.
Wird das Derivat als "komplex" eingestuft, wird anstelle des Delta-Tests der Äquivalenztest angewendet. 
 
Wann wird ein derivatives Finanzinstrument emittiert?
Der Zeitpunkt, an dem ein derivatives Instrument emittiert wird, ist ausschlaggebend. Durch den Zeitpunkt wird festgelegt, ob das Finanzinstrument den Richtlinien unterliegt (dies gilt nicht für Finanzinstrumente, die vor 2017 emittiert wurden) und wann das Delta berechnet wird. Allgemein wird ein Finanzinstrument bei seiner Entstehung "herausgegeben", wodurch es nach seinem Beginndatum oder seinem ursprünglichen Ausgabedatum festgelegt werden kann. Finanzinstrumente werden nicht emittiert, wenn sie erneut in den Sekundärmarkt verkauft werden.
 
Daraus ergeben sich Unterschiede in den Emissionsregeln für börsennotierte Optionen, Futures, andere börsengehandelte Produkte sowie OTC-Produkte. Zum Beispiel wird eine börsennotierte Option, die auf einer US-amerikanischen Börse gehandelt wird, zunächst nicht herausgegeben, wenn Sie von einer Börse erstmals als für den Handel verfügbar notiert wird. Stattdessen wird die börsennotierte Option emittiert (Delta wird festgelegt), wenn die Option vom Kunden eingegangen wird. Hingegen werden übertragbare Derivate, wie z. B. börsengehandelte Notes, Wandelanleihen und Optionsscheine emittiert, wenn sie erstmals verkauft werden. Das zu diesem Zeitpunkt berechnete Delta würde übertragen, wenn das Derivat von einem darauffolgenden Käufer erworben würde. 
 
Gibt es Ausnahmen?
Die Vorschriften beinhalten eingeschränkte Ausnahmen im Hinblick auf die Quellensteuer. Zum Beispiel:
•        ein derivatives Finanzinstrument, das den sogenannten “qualifizierenden Index” (qualified index) referenziert - ein im Allgemeinen passiver und öffentlich erhältlicher Index auf US-Aktien wie z. B. S&P 500, NASDAQ 100 oder Russell 2000.
•        ein derivatives Instrument mit Bezug auf einen Index, der über eine geringe oder keine US-Kapitalzusammensetzung verfügt – wie z. B. der Hang Seng Index.
•        wenn die dividendengleiche Zahlung (oder ein Anteil davon) nicht der US-Quellensteuer unterliegen würde, da die Nicht-US-Person direkter Inhaber des zugrunde liegenden Wertpapiers wäre. Dies ist meistens der Fall bei derivativen Finanzinstrumenten für US-Investmentfonds, REITs sowie börsengehandelte Fonds, die 'Dividenden' zahlen, die wiederum als Kapitalerträge oder Kapitalrückzahlungen gehandhabt werden.
 
Gibt es konkrete Beispiele dafür, wann die Regelung Anwendung findet und wann nicht?
•        Am 2. Jänner 2017 erwirbt ein Kunde Single-Stock-Futures auf IBM. Das Delta des Futures beträgt 1.0. Der Future fällt somit unter die Regelung.
•        Am 28. Dezember 2016 erwirbt ein Kunde eine OCC-notierte Option auf IBM, die tief im Geld liegt. Das Delta des Futures beträgt 1.0. Die Option unterliegt nicht der Vorschrift, da sie vor 2017 emittiert wurde.
•        Am 15. Jänner 2017 erwirbt ein Kunde einen Index-Future auf einem Narrow-Based-Index. Angenommen, bei dem Index handelt es sich um keinen 'qualifizierenden Index'. Der Future fällt somit unter die Regelung.
•        Am 2. Jänner 2017 erwirbt ein Kunde börsengehandelte Notes, die US-Aktien mit einem Delta von 1.0 verfolgen. Die Notes wurden am 1. Juli 2016 emittiert. Die Option unterliegt nicht der Vorschrift, da sie vor 2017 emittiert wurde.
 
Wie wird die Quellensteuer auf dividendengleiche Zahlungen berechnet?
Falls das derivative Finanzinstrument der neuen Section 871(m) unterliegt, beträgt solch eine dividendengleiche Zahlung gleich viel wie der Preis der Dividende je Aktie auf die zugrunde liegende US-Aktie multipliziert mit der Anzahl der zugrunde liegenden Aktien, die durch das Finanzinstrument referenziert werden multipliziert mit Delta (z. B. ein Option-Kontrakt mit 100 Anteilen einer Aktie, die $1.00 in Dividenden erbringt sowie ein Delta von .80 hat, würde gemäß einer dividendengleichen Zahlung von $80.00 der Steuer unterliegen).
 
Im Falle eines komplexen Derivat-Kontrakts beträgt die dividendengleiche Zahlung gleich viel wie die Dividende pro Aktie auf den Basiswert multipliziert mit der Absicherung des Kontrakts zum Basiswert, der zum Zeitpunkt der Emission des Kontrakts berechnet wurde.
 
Wie werden Kontrakte zur Berechnung von Delta kombiniert?
Ab 2018 werden für Kunden, die derivative Instrumente wie z. B. einen Long-Call mit einem Delta von weniger als dem Grenzwert von .80 erwerben und gleichzeitig ein Put auf denselben Basiswert sowie dieselbe Aktienmenge binnen 2 Tagen verkaufen, diese Positionen kombiniert, damit festgestellt werden kann, ob diese Schwelle überschritten wurde (z. B. der Kauf eines Long-Calls mit einem Delta von 0.60 zusammen mit dem Verkauf eines Puts mit einem Delta von .40 würde ein Long-Delta von 1.0 ergeben).
 
2017 können ausschließlich OTC-Finanzinstrumente einer potenziellen Kombinierung unterliegen, um ein Instrument mit einem Delta von 1.0 zu ergeben. 
 
Welche Informationen bietet IB, um Kunden über betroffene Positionen zu informieren?
Um die Wahrscheinlichkeit einer Besteuerung durch die Quellensteuer zu verringern, plant IB einen Warnhinweis auf der TWS anzuzeigen, wenn Nicht-US-Personen eine Order erstellen, die die Steuer auslösen könnte. Dadurch wird Kunden die Möglichkeit gegeben die Order zu stornieren, um mögliche Steuerabzüge zu vermeiden bzw. um die Order zu übermitteln und möglicherweise die Steuer abzuführen, sollte eine Dividende zustande kommen. Kunden können die potenzielle Quellensteuer meiden, indem sie keine Derivate am anwendbaren Steuerdatum halten (dies ist üblicherweise der Stichtag der Dividende).
 
 

WICHTIGER HINWEIS: Wir bieten keine Beratung zu steuerlichen, rechtlichen oder finanziellen Angelegenheiten. Jeder Kunde muss mit seinen oder ihren persönlichen Beratern sprechen, um die möglichen Auswirkungen der Section 871(m) auf die Handelstätigkeiten des Kunden festzustellen.


[1] Obwohl der Inhaber einer Call-Option keine Dividende erhält, berücksichtigt der durch den Inhaber bezahlte Aufschlag für die Option voraussichtliche Dividenden (da der Aktienpreis voraussichtlich um den Betrag der Dividende am Ex-Tag fallen wird und Bardividenden niedrigere Call-Prämien beinhalten).

How to update the US Social Security Number (SSN) or Individual Taxpayer Identification Number (ITIN) on your account

Background: 

If you have been informed or believe that your account profile contains an incorrect US SSN/ITIN, you may simply log into your Account Management to update this information. Depending on your taxpayer status, you can update your US SSN/ITIN by modifying one of the following documents:

1) IRS Form W9 (if you are a US tax resident and/or US citizen holding a US SSN/ITIN)

2) IRS Form W-8BEN (if you are a Non-US tax resident holding a US SSN/ITIN)

Please note, if your SSN/ITIN has already been verified with the IRS you will be unable to update the information. If however the IRS has not yet verified the ID, you will have the ability to update through Account Management. 

 

How to Modify Your W9/W8

1) To submit this information change request, first login to Account Management

2) Click on the Settings section followed by Account Settings

 

3) Find the Profile(s) section. Locate the User you wish to update and click on the Info button (the "i" icon) to the left of the User's name

 

4) Scroll down to the bottom where you will see the words Tax Forms. Next to it will be a link with the current tax form we have for the account. Click on this tax form to open it

 

5) Review the form. If your US SSN/ITIN is incorrect, click on the UPDATE button at the bottom of the page

 

6) Make the requisite changes and click the CONTINUE button to submit your request.

 

7) If supporting documentation is required to approve your information change request, you will receive a message.  Otherwise, your information change request should be approved within 24-48 hours.

Withholding Tax on Dividend Equivalent Payments - FAQs

Background

Beginning January 1, 2017, new IRS regulations will impose U.S. withholding taxes on US dividend equivalent payments to non-US persons holding derivative positions on US equities. Previously, US withholding tax was not imposed on these payments. The regulations require intermediaries, such as us, to act as withholding agents and collect US tax on behalf of the IRS. An overview of the tax, how it’s determined and the products impacted is provided below.
 
Overview
What is the purpose of the regulation?
The regulation derives from Section 871(m) of the Internal Revenue Code and is intended to harmonize the US tax treatment imposed on non-U.S. persons with respect to dividends on U.S. stock and dividend equivalent payments paid on derivative contracts that replicate (to a high degree) ownership of such stock.
 
An example of this would be a total return swap having IBM as its underlying.  A non-U.S. person holding an IBM stock position would be subject to a 30% US withholding tax (reduced by treaty) on dividend payments. On the other hand prior to the implementation of Section 871(m), a non-U.S. person holding long exposure to IBM on the swap could receive payments equivalent to the dividends without imposition of U.S. withholding tax. This was the case even though the payments replicated similar economic exposure. Section 871(m) now considers those ‘dividend equivalent payments’ subject to US withholding tax.
 
What is a dividend equivalent payment?
A dividend equivalent payment is any gross amount that references the payment of a dividend on a U.S. equity and that is used to compute any net amount transferred to or from the long party, even if the long party make a net payment to the short party or the net payment is zero. Accordingly, such payments would include not only an actual payment in lieu of a dividend but also an estimated dividend payment that is implicitly taken into account in computing one or more of the terms of the transaction, including interest rate, notional amount or purchase price.
 
In the case of a listed call option on a U.S. stock, for example, the holder of the call is not entitled to receive a dividend unless the option is exercised prior to the dividend ex-date. Nonetheless, the premium paid by the holder to purchase the option implicitly takes into account the present value of the expected dividends over the option term.[1] Since this factor serves to lower the payment from the option buyer to the seller, it is viewed as a dividend equivalent payment potentially subject to the rules.
 
Who is subject to the dividend equivalent withholding tax?
The tax applies to qualifying positions held in an account of a non-U.S. taxpayer. It does not apply to U.S. taxpayers. Accounts of non-U.S. taxpayers generally are evidenced by the submission of an IRS Form W-8 and can include the following account types: individual, joint, organization and trust.
 
What derivative instruments potentially are subject to the dividend equivalent withholding tax?
The regulations adopt a two-part test to determine if a derivative instrument is subject to the rules. First, the derivative instruments must reference the dividend on a U.S. equity security. Examples include:
-          equity options
-          regulated single stock futures
-          regulated index futures and options on index futures
-          structured and exchange traded notes
-          CFD contracts
-          convertible bonds
-          securities lending transactions
-          derivatives on custom baskets and
-          warrants
 
If the underlying position is a U.S. equity. The exchange upon which the instrument is traded and the identity of the counterparty do not affect the application of the rules. That is, a derivative can be subject to the rules, whether it is exchange listed or over the counter or trades in the United States or overseas.
 
Second, the derivative instrument must substantially replicate the economics of the underlying U.S. equity at the time of issuance. The rules look to delta (for simple contracts) and a substantially equivalency test (for complex contracts) to make this determination.
 
Delta is a correlation measurement that computes the ratio of the change in the fair market value of the derivative instrument to a change in the fair market value of the U.S. equity referenced by the derivative.  In general, for purposes of this regulation, delta is only determined once over the life of the derivative instrument – at the time it is ‘issued’. It is not recomputed as the fair market value of the underlying security changes or when the derivative instrument is re-sold in the secondary market.
 
For most contracts, the rules are as follows:
·         Pre-2017 – a derivative instrument issued prior to January 1, 2017 (i.e., anything held by a customer with us on December 31, 2016) is not subject to the new withholding tax rules.
·         2017 - a derivative instrument issued in 2017 is potentially subject to the new withholding tax regime if the delta at the time of issuance is 1.0.
·         After 2017 – a derivative instrument issued after December 31, 2017 is potentially subject to the new withholding tax rules if the delta at the time of issuance is 0.8 or greater.
If the derivative is classified as “complex,” the delta test does not apply and instead the substantial equivalency test applies. 
 
So When Is a Derivative Instrument Issued?
Identified when a derivative instrument is issued is very important. It determines if the instrument is subject to the rules (pre-2017 issued instruments are not) and when the delta computation is made. In general, an instrument is ‘issued’ when it comes into existence, its inception date or date of original issuance. Instruments are not issued when re-sold in the secondary market.
 
As a result, there are differences in the issuance rules for listed options, futures, other exchange traded products and over-the-counter products. For example, a listed option traded on a US exchange, generally, is not issued when first listed by an exchange as available for trading. Instead, the listed option is issued (delta determined) when the option is entered into by the customer. On the other hand, for transferable derivatives, such as exchange traded notes, convertible bonds and warrants, they would be issued only when first sold. The delta determined at that time would carryover when sold to a subsequent purchaser. 
 
Are There Any Exceptions?
The rules do provide limited exceptions to withholding. These include:
•        a derivative instrument that references a “qualified index” - generally, a passive broad publicly available index on U.S. equities such as the S&P 500, NASDAQ 100 or Russell 2000.
•        a derivative instrument that references an index with little or no U.S. equity composition – such as the Hang Seng Index.
•        if the dividend equivalent payment (or portion thereof) would not be subject to U.S. withholding tax if the non-US person owned the underlying security directly. This most often will occur for derivative instruments on U.S. mutual funds, REITs and exchange traded funds that pay ‘dividends’ which are re-characterized as capital gain distributions or returns of capital.
 
Can you provide some examples of when the rules will or will not apply?
•        Customer purchases single stock futures on IBM on January 2, 2017. The delta of the future is 1.0. The future is subject to the rule.
•        Customer purchases a deep in the money OCC listed option on IBM on December 28, 2016. The delta of the future is 1.0. The option is not subject to the rule as it was issued prior to 2017.
•        Customer purchases index future on a narrow based index on January 15, 2017. Assume the index is not a ‘qualified index.’ The future is subject to the rule.
•        Customer purchases an exchange trade note that tracks U.S. equities on January 2, 2017 with a delta of 1.0. The note was issued on July 1, 2016. The option is not subject to the rule as it was issued prior to 2017
 
How is the dividend equivalent withholding computed?
If the derivative instrument is subject to the new Section 871(m), a dividend equivalent payment with respect to such instrument equals the per share dividend on the underlying U.S. equity, multiplied by the number of underlying shares referenced by the instrument, multiplied by the delta (e.g., an option contract delivering 100 shares of a stock paying $1.00 dividend and having a delta of .80 would be subject to a tax based upon $80.00 dividend equivalent payment).
 
In the case of a complex derivative contract, the dividend equivalent will be equal to the per share dividend on the underlying, multiplied by the contract’s hedge equivalent to the underlying as calculated when the contract was issued.
 
How are contracts combined for purposes of determining delta?
Starting in 2018, customers who purchase derivative instrument such as a long call having a delta below the .80 threshold and selling a put on the same underlying and same share quantity within 2 days of one another will have those positions combined for the purpose of determining whether the threshold has been exceeded (e.g., the purchase of a long call with a delta of 0.60 coupled with the sale of a put with a delta of .40 would result in a long delta of 1.0).
 
In 2017, only over-the-counter instruments are potentially subject to combination to create a delta 1.0 instrument. 
 
What information do we provide to inform clients about impacted positions?
To minimize exposure to the withholding tax, we intend to provide a TWS warning message will be provided when non-U.S. persons create an order that could generate the tax. This will give customers the option of canceling the order to avoid potential withholding or submitting the order and possibly paying the tax when a dividend occurs. Customers may avoid the potential withholding tax by not owning the derivative on the applicable withholding date (i.e., generally the dividend Record Date).
 
 

IMPORTANT NOTE: We do not provide tax, legal or financial advice. Each customer must speak with the customer’s own advisors to determine the impact that the Section 871(m) rules may have on the customer’s trading activity.


[1] While the holder of the call option does not receive a dividend, the premium paid by the holder for the option implicitly takes expected dividends into account (i.e., because the stock price is expected to drop by the amount of the dividend on the ex-dividend date, cash dividends imply lower call premiums).

Common Reporting Standard (CRS)

The Common Reporting Standard (CRS), referred to as the Standard for Automatic Exchange of Financial Account Information (AEOI), calls on countries to obtain information from their financial institutions and exchange that information with other countries automatically on an annual basis. The CRS sets out the financial account information to be exchanged, the financial institutions required to report, the different types of accounts and taxpayers covered, as well as common due diligence procedures to be followed by financial institutions.
 
Interactive Brokers will comply with the OECD's Common Reporting Standard – Automatic Exchange of Information (CRS-AEOI).
 
  • What is reported:
    • Name
    • Address
    • Tax ID Number
    • Tax Country
    • Date of Birth
    • Place of Birth
    • Year-end account balance
    • Gross Proceeds (all sales)
    • Interest income
    • Dividend income
  • To whom is the information reported:
    • For accounts held by the Interactive Brokers U.K. entity, the above information will be reported to HM Revenue & Customs of the United Kingdom. (During the first reporting period in May 2017, only Jurisdiction 1 countries will be reported.) The list can be found on the OECD website by clicking here http://www.oecd.org/tax/transparency/AEOI-commitments.pdf
    • For accounts held by Interactive Brokers Hong Kong entity, the above information will be reported to Inland Revenue Department of Hong Kong.
    • For accounts held by Interactive Brokers Japan entity, the above information will be reported to National Tax Agency of Japan
    • For accounts held by Interactive Brokers India entity, the above information will be reported to Income Tax Department of Japan
    • For accounts held by Interactive Brokers Canada entity, the above information will be reported to the Canada Revenue Agency
    • For accounts held by Interactive Brokers LLC, there is no reporting since the United Sates has not signed the CRS.
  • When will reporting take place and for what timeframe:
    • For IB UK accounts, the information will be reported for the first time in May 2017 for the calendar year 2016
    • For IB India, the information will be reported for the first time in May 2017 for the calendar year 2016
    • For IB HK, the information will be reported for the first time in May 2018 for the calendar year 2017
    • For IB Japan, the information will be reported for the first time in May 2018 for the calendar year 2017
    • For IB Canada, the information will be reported for the first time in May 2018 for the calendar year 2017
    • Non-Disclosed Introducing Brokers are responsible for their own reporting

 

FATCA Procedures - Grantor Trust Tax Information Submission

Übersicht: 

Interactive Brokers is required to collect certain documentation from clients to comply with U.S. Foreign Account Tax Compliance Act (“FATCA”) and other international exchange of information agreements.

This guide contains instructions for a Trust to complete the online tax information and to electronically submit a W-9 or W-8BEN.

 

U.S. Tax Classification

Your U.S. income tax classification determines the tax form(s) required to document the account.

You must login to Account Management with the trust's primary username to access the Tax Form Collection page.

1.      Tax Form Collection

The Tax Form Collection page lets account holders review and update important tax-related information and lets account holders electronically fill out an IRS Form W-9 (U.S. taxpayers) and IRS Form W-8 (non-U.S. taxpayers).
 
Accessing the Tax Form Collection Page
 
a. Click Manage Account > Account Information > Tax Information > Tax Forms.
 
b. Click the Update Tax Forms button to access the Collection page.
The Tax Form Collection page opens, displaying a form with tax-related information that should already be completed. (Advisors and brokers can check the status of client updates to this page on the Dashboard Pending Items tab.
 
c.  Review the Trust’s information and update as required.
 
Confirm the primary tax residency of the trust beside the Tax Residency question, "In what country is the trust a resident for tax purposes?"  Select the appropriate country in the drop down menu.
 
 
Select in the Tax Residency drop down menu the applicable country.
 
d. Click Continue.
 

2.      Classification for US Tax Purposes

 
Confirming the Trust’s classification for U.S. purposes
 
a. Review the Trust’s status by confirming the question, “How are you classified for US tax purposes?” The answer is pre-filled based upon your information completed during the account application process. 
 
 
b. Click the Continue button to confirm the trust classification and complete the Form W-8 or W-9 for the entity. 
 
c. Click the Continue button to identify each Grantor. 
 

3.      Identify Grantors

 

a. Click Manage Account > Account Information > Tax Information > Tax Forms.

 
b. Click the Create button beside each grantor to send each user the applicable tax questionnaire and to submit the tax certification form (W-8 or W-9).  
 
Also, update the "Percentage of Ownership" to add up to 100%, if necessary.
 
 
 
 
c. Enter the required fields for the username and password for specified grantor and click the Continue button to complete the email delivery of the link.
 
 
 
We will then send the owner a link to complete the necessary tax form. This link will only be used for the collection of tax forms. You must provide the username and password to the Grantor as link will not contain them.   
 
Each Grantor must login with the username/password created and complete the pending tasks by going to Manage Account > Account Information > Tax Information > Tax Forms  > Update Tax Forms.
 
d. Click the Continue button upon creating and sending usernames to each Grantor.  
 
 
 
 
Disclaimer
This guide does not constitute tax or legal advice and Interactive Brokers cannot advise you on how to complete an IRS Forms W-8 or W-9.  Instructions are for information purposes only and do not address all possible scenarios. Please consult your tax professional if you are unsure how to complete.
 

Entity and FATCA Classification for Non-Financial Entities

Introduction
Interactive Brokers (“IB”, “we” or “us”) is required to collect certain documentation from clients (“you”) to comply with U.S. Foreign Account Tax Compliance Act (“FATCA”) and other international exchange of information agreements.

This guide contains a series of flowcharts and accompanying notes that summarize IRS rules relating to:

1. The tax classification for purposes of determining which W-8 or W-9 tax form an entity is required to complete; and

2. The FATCA classification required of entities completing the W-8 tax form (Part I, Section 5).

Note: The flowcharts and notes contained herein do not cover every possible scenario and other scenarios not presented here exist and may more closely align with your situation. You should consult a tax professional regarding your particular circumstances if you are still unsure of your U.S. entity and/or FATCA classification after reading this guide.

 

What is NOT Covered in this Guide
The guide is directed to non-U.S. entities that (i) are the beneficial owners of the payments made to the account and (ii) are not financial institutions. This guide does not apply to:
 

• Individuals (use W-9 or W-8BEN)
• U.S. entities (use W-9)
• Entities acting as an intermediary (such as a nominee, broker, custodian, investment advisor) on behalf of another person (use W-8IMY).
• Non-U.S. Tax-Exempt Organizations and Private Foundations
• Financial Institutions
 

Note: The U.S. entered into bilateral agreements called Intergovernmental Agreements (IGAs) with many countries regarding the implementation of FATCA. In some cases, the provisions of an applicable IGA could modify the results described in this guide. Entities are covered by an IGA should refer to the IGA and/or consult a tax professional for their filing requirements.
 

1. U.S. Tax Classification
Your U.S. income tax classification determines the tax form(s) required to document the account. The flow chart below may help you determine your tax classification and the tax form to be completed.

Important: The U.S. imposes income tax on its residents’ worldwide income. On the other hand, nonresidents are only subject to withholding tax on certain limited types of US source investment income (dividends from U.S. companies, etc.). Completion of a W-8 series tax form certifies you are NOT taxable as a U.S. resident. A W-8 form may also be used to claim a reduced rate of withholding tax under a U.S. income tax treaty.

 

Flowchart for Determining Tax Classification and Required Tax Form (Non-Trust Entities)

 

 

Flowchart for Determining Tax Classification and Required Tax Form (Trusts)

 

 

 

2. FATCA Classification

The W8 tax forms are also used to collect FATCA classifications. Many countries have executed “Intergovernmental Agreements (IGA)” with the U.S. requiring its local financial institutions to classify its customers for FATCA purposes. The classification rules under an IGA may not exactly match the classification rules established by the IRS. Other institutions have agreed with the IRS to become FATCA compliant and determine their customers’ FATCA classifications under the IRS rules. We are required to collect this information. The flowchart below applies the IRS default FATCA classification rules and is general in nature.  The flowchart is accompanied by sample W-8BEN-E screenshots for a common account structure: a non-U.S. corporation classified for FATCA purposes as a Passive Non-Financial Foreign Entity (NFFE), which qualifies for treaty witholding rates.
 

Note: It is important to recognize many organizations meet the qualifications for multiple FATCA types and you must select the most appropriate classification. Your specific situation may not fall within the general guidance. We recommend you seek your own independent advice as we are not in a position to make this determination for you and the rules are complex.
 

Flowchart for Determining FATCA Classification

 

Example: A corporation is a common form of entity ownership, involving two or more owners with none having any personal liability for the debts of entity.  As outlined in the Tax Classification flowchart above, an entity of this type would be required to complete the W-8BEN-E. Assuming the corporation is not classified as a Foreign Financial Entity (e.g. bank, broker, investment manager, hedge fund, mutual fund, insurance company) as discussed in footnote 5 below, then its FATCA classification would be Passive NFFE.  Screenshots of the W-8BEN-E for this sample entity are provided below.

 Sample Screenshots - W-8BEN-E (Passive NFFE)

 

 

 

Footnotes

 1  The US Internal Revenue Service (IRS) established rules for determining the tax classification of entities formed outside the United States. These rules apply regardless of how the entity is classified in its country of organization or residency.
 

Generally corporate entities are treated as the beneficial owners of an account and should complete a W-8BEN-E and select “corporation” unless they elect otherwise (discussed below).


IRS regulations assign a default classification to each entity type. This default classification may be overridden by making a filing with the IRS and obtaining an US employer identification number. Certain entities cannot change their classification and are treated as corporations in all events (e.g., Sociedad Anonima, Public Limited Company and Aktiengesellschaft). A complete list may be found at US Treasury Regulation Section 301.7701-2(b)(8).
 

The IRS default classification usually depends on (i) the number of owners and (ii) whether any owner is personally liable for the debts of the entity based on the organizing statute (i.e., bank guarantees or other contractual agreements by owners are ignored). The following table summarizes the default rules:
 

 
Number of Owners
Owners have Limited Liability?
 
 
Yes?
No?
 
 
1 Owner
Corporation
Disregarded Entity
 
 
2+ Owners
Corporation
Partnership
 
 
 
 

Note: Since the entity tax classification of a disregarded entity is determined by its owner, a US disregarded entity may find the flowchart helpful if the owner is a non-US entity.
 

A fiscally transparent entity (such as a partnership, simple trust or grantor trust) using IRS Form W-8IMY must provide IRS tax forms for all of its beneficial owners (partners in a partnership, beneficiaries for a simple trust and settlors for a grantor trust) for the account to be documented for US tax purposes.
 

Certain unit investment trusts (generally where there is an ability to vary the investments) are not considered trusts for US tax purposes. These investment trusts are treated in the same manner as a traditional business entity under the rules discussed above (i.e., corporation, partnership or disregarded entity).
 

Finally, a trust (other than a unit investment trust treated as a business entity) is considered a non-US trust for US tax purposes if (1) a court outside the United States is able to exercise primary supervision over the administration of the trust, and (2) any non-US person has the ability to control (or veto) any “substantial decision” of the trust.
 

The flowchart assumes that the default entity classification rules apply and the entity is not a per se corporation.
 

 

A partnership or simple or grantor trust may enter into a withholding agreement with the IRS pursuant to which the partnership or simple or grantor trust agrees to withhold US taxes on the account. The flowchart assumes no withholding agreement was executed.
 

 

 

3  In general, US tax treaty benefits are granted to the beneficial owner of the income determined under US tax principles. For fiscally transparent entities (such as partnerships, simple or grantor trusts or disregarded entities), this means the owners of the entity, NOT THE ENTITY ITSELF, claim US tax treaty benefits. These benefits are claimed on the beneficial owners’ W8 tax forms. However in certain limited cases, an entity may be considered fiscally transparent for US tax purposes but not fiscally transparent by the country with which the US has an income tax treaty. This type of an entity is called a “hybrid entity.” In certain cases, a hybrid entity, not the owners, may claim US tax treaty benefits if the hybrid entity meets the so-called qualified resident test under the applicable tax treaty. A qualifying “hybrid entity” claims the benefits of a US tax treaty by providing a Form W-8BEN-E, in addition to the form required by the flowchart. Importantly, electing hybrid status does not eliminate the need to document all beneficial owners. We note it is unusual for a hybrid entity to claim treaty benefits. The more common scenario is the beneficial owners claim treaty benefits on their tax forms.
 

 

4  The rules for classifying trusts are difficult and complex. The flowchart applies generalized rules only. There are many nuances to be considered when classifying a trust which are not addressed in the flowchart. For example, simple trusts cannot have charitable beneficiaries.
 

 

5  What is a foreign financial institution for FATCA purpose?
The various FATCA classifications can be broken down into two major categories: foreign financial institutions (FFI) and non-financial foreign (NFFE). Very generally, a financial institution is an entity that is a:


• Depository Institution
• Custodial Institution
• Investment Entity
• Insurance Company that issues certain cash value insurance or annuity contracts.
 

An FFI typically is required to register with the IRS, obtain a Global Intermediary Identification Number and report on its customers / owners to the appropriate tax authorities. If the entity does not meet the definition of a Financial Institution, it is considered an NFFE and covered by this guide book.
 

Subject to variations under IRS regulations and intergovernmental agreements:


• a Depository Institution is an institution that accepts deposits in the ordinary course of a banking or similar business. This includes banks and credit unions.
• a Custodial Institution is an institution which holds financial assets for the account of others as a substantial portion of its business. This includes brokers, custodial banks, trust companies, clearing organizations, etc.
• an Investment Entity is any entity if either
(i) the entity generates 50%+ of its gross income from (i) trading in money market instruments, foreign currency, transferrable securities, interest rates, futures, etc.; (ii) portfolio management or (iii) otherwise investing, administering or managing funds or financial assets on behalf of other persons (generally, broker-dealers and investment managers);
or
(ii) 50%+ of the entity gross income is attributable to investing, reinvesting, or trading in financial assets AND it is managed by a Financial Institution (mutual funds, hedge funds, and collective investment vehicles are examples);
or

(iii) the entity holds itself out as an entity created to invest, reinvest, or trade invest in financial assets (mutual funds, hedge funds, and collective investment vehicles are examples).
 

An individual cannot be an FFI. Thus, an organization managed by a professional individual investment advisor (as opposed to an employee of an organization) would not be considered an Investment Entity under (ii) above because it is not managed by a financial institution.
 

Trusts, family investment companies and funds may fall within the definition of an Investment Entity when they are professionally managed by a financial institution – i.e. where a financial institution handles the day-to-day functions of the entity or has discretionary authority over the fund.
 

Example: Individual created a non-US Trust A and appoints X, a non-US bank or other financial institution, as the trustee. X, as trustee, is responsible for the management and administration of Trust A. Trust A is an Investment Entity and a Foreign Financial Institution because it is managed by a Foreign Financial Institution.
 

Example: Individual created a non-US Trust A and appoints Y, an individual professional manager, as the trustee. Y, as trustee, is responsible for the management and administration of Trust A. Trust A is not an Investment Entity or a Foreign Financial Institution because it is not managed by a Foreign Financial Institution. Individuals cannot be financial institutions.
 

 

6  The IRS has a list of countries with which it has executed intergovernmental agreements (IGAs) to authorize the implementation of FATCA in that jurisdiction. The list of IGAs can be found at https://www.treasury.gov/resource-center/tax-policy/treaties/Pages/FATCA....
 

 

7  See #4 for the definition of Financial Institution. An organization that is not considered a financial institution is considered a non-financial foreign entity (NFFE). There are 3 types of NFFEs; Excepted, Active and Passive. An Active NFFE is an operating business where less than 50% of (i) its gross income is considered passive income and (ii) its average assets are held for the production of passive income. Any NFFE that is not Excepted or Active is a Passive NFFE and must provide us with a certification of its substantial US owners (if any) – generally 10%+ direct or indirect ownership. Some IGAs modify the means of substantial US owners and refer to them as Controlling Persons.
 

8   Other possible choices include nonfinancial group entity, excepted nonfinancial start-up company, excepted non-financial entity in liquidation or bankruptcy, publicly traded NFFE or sponsored NFFE. See the instructions to the W-8 for further information.
 

 

Disclaimer

This guide does not constitute tax or legal advice and Interactive Brokers cannot advise you on how to complete IRS Forms W-8. Examples included in this guide are for illustration only and do not address all possible scenarios. Please consult your tax professional if you are unsure how to complete IRS Forms W-8.

FATCA FAQs - Issues Involving Mismatch Between Tax Treaty Country and Address

FATCA related FAQs involving mismatches between tax treaty country and address. See KB2601 for other FATCA related FAQ topics.

 

Q1: I claimed treaty benefits in one country but have an address outside that treaty country. Why did I receive an email asking for additional documentation?
 

A1: We are required to verify your connection with the treaty country since you also have an address outside that country. We can process your claim for treaty benefits if you provide one document from Category (A) AND one document from Category (B) below.
 

                                Category (A)
AND
Category (B)
ANY OF the following unexpired documents issued by the treaty country:
ANY OF the following documents that match your address in the treaty country:
·         Driver’s license
·         Driver’s license
·         Passport
·         Bank or brokerage statement*
·         National identity card
·         Utility bill*

*Bank or brokerage statements and utility bills must be less than 12 months old.  Alternatively, if you cannot provide documents from both categories, please provide a written explanation as to why you are entitled to treaty benefits together with any supporting documentation. Note: we may request further information or documentation from you depending on the explanation provided.
 

 

Q2: I submitted a proof of address and I received an email that the document submission did not resolve the issue. Why?
 

A2: Please confirm that the proof of identity you submitted was issued by the treaty country and that the proof of address relates to your address in the treaty country. A proof of address document alone is not sufficient to resolve the matter. Sometimes, customers inadvertently submit documentation for the other address. Please check the date of the proof of address document. We can only accept documents dated less than 12 months old. Also confirm you submitted a proof of identity document from the treaty country.
 

 

Q3: I live in Hong Kong and chose China as my tax treaty country on my Form W-8BEN. I received a notification saying the proof of address and proof of identity I submitted was not sufficient to claim benefits under the U.S.-China tax treaty. Hong Kong is a Special Administrative Region of the People’s Republic of China, so the U.S.-China tax treaty applies to it, correct?
 

A3: No. According to the US Internal Revenue Service, the U.S.-People’s Republic of China tax treaty does NOT apply to Hong Kong. Unless you can provide a proof of address and identity in the People’s Republic of China or provide other evidence that you are a tax resident of People’s Republic of China, you may not claim Chinese tax treaty benefits.
 

 

Q4: I live in Macau and chose China as my tax treaty country on my Form W-8BEN. I received an e-mail saying that the proof of address I submitted for my Macau address was not sufficient to claim benefits under the U.S.-China tax treaty. Macau is a Special Administrative Region of the People’s Republic of China, so the U.S.-China tax treaty applies to it, correct?
 

A4: No. According to the U.S. Internal Revenue Service, the U.S.- People’s Republic of China tax treaty does NOT apply to Macau. Unless you can provide a proof of address and identity in the People’s Republic of China or provide other evidence that you are a tax resident of People’s Republic of China, you may not claim Chinese tax treaty benefits.
 

 

Q5: I live in Taiwan and chose China as my tax treaty country on my Form W-8BEN. I received an e-mail saying that the proof of address I submitted for my address in Taiwan was not sufficient to claim benefits under the U.S.-China tax treaty. Taiwan is formally known as the Republic of China, so the U.S.-China tax treaty applies to it, correct?
 

A5: No. According to the US Internal Revenue Service, the U.S.- People’s Republic of China tax treaty does NOT apply to Taiwan. Unless you can provide a proof of address in People’s Republic of China or provide other evidence that you are a tax resident of People’s Republic of China, you may not claim Chinese tax treaty benefits.
 

 

Q6: The information you have in your master file is out-of-date. I moved so that the address you identified as outside the treaty country is incorrect. What should I do?
 

A6: The fastest and most effective way to remedy the situation is to provide the requested information (see FAQ#1 above) so that our records are complete. You should also log into Account Management and make any required changes to your personal information.
 

 

We do not provide tax advice. Please consult your tax advisor for advice in completing tax forms and determining your taxpayer status.

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